If we want our pupils to develop fluency, understanding and the ability to solve complex problems, then it is vital that

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- Mark McCourt

*Table of contents : CoverAbout the authorsCopyrightTable of ContentsForewordBiographiesIntroduction1 Learning mathematics2 The role of tasks3 Curriculum4 Pedagogy5 Classification of Tasks6 Procedural tasks7 Conceptual tasks8 Problem-solving tasks9 Task design10 ConclusionBibliography*

A JOHN CATT PUBLICATION

The Bridge Between Teaching and Learning This book contains extracts from conversations with: • Mike Askew • Laurinda Brown • Jonathan Dunning • Jo Morgan • David Wees• Andrew Blair • Sam Blatherwick • Hugh Burkhardt • Tom Carson • Colin Foster • Tom Francome • Tony Gardiner • Dave Hewitt • Helen Konstantine • Gary Lamb • Dan Lewis • John Mason • Gerry McNally • Dan Meyer • Fawn Nguyen • Mike Ollerton • Luke Pearce • Richard Perring • Chris Smith • Dave Taylor • Andy Thompson • Anne Watson • Susan Whitehouse

First-hand interviews with world-class mathematics education experts and practising teachers bring to life the ideas behind how tasks can act as a bridge between what the teacher wants the pupil to make sense of and what the pupil actually does makes sense of. This is a book for classroom teachers, and anyone who is interested in the theory behind tasks. WWW.JOHNCATT.COM

Chris McGrane and Mark McCourt

If we want our pupils to develop fluency, understanding and the ability to solve complex problems, then it is vital that teachers develop the ability to select, adapt and design appropriate mathematical tasks. In this book, Chris McGrane and Mark McCourt explore a range of practical approaches, strategies and principles behind the design and effective use of tasks in the mathematics classroom that lead to all pupils becoming successful learners.

MATHEMATICAL TASKS The Bridge Between Teaching and Learning

MATHEMATICAL TASKS

MATHEMATICAL TASKS The Bridge Between Teaching and Learning

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Chris McGrane has been working in mathematics education for 15 years, having taught in four very different schools. He has previously led a department in developing pedagogy, the curriculum and improving attainment. Much of this work was centred on designing and adapting high-quality mathematical tasks. Chris has worked as a CPD consultant with La Salle Education, delivering CPD and training across Scotland, from Galashiels to Lerwick and everywhere else in between. However, the call of the classroom never left and Chris is now Principal Teacher of Mathematics in Scotland’s largest school. Chris is also involved in running the Glasgow branch of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) and runs the popular website startingpointsmaths. com. Chris can be found on Twitter as @chrismcgrane84

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Mark McCourt is the UK’s leading authority on teaching for mastery. He has trained over 2000 schools in mastery models for schooling in the UK and overseas. His latest book, Teaching for Mastery, is a manifesto for a better way of schooling. A leading figure in mathematics education, Mark has led many large-scale government education initiatives, both in the UK and overseas. Mark was a Director at the National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics (NCETM) and has also been a school leader, an Advanced Skills Teacher, a school inspector and a teacher trainer. He founded and was Chairman of the Teacher Development Trust. Mark has extensive experience of mathematics teaching and learning across all age and ability groups, having taught students from age 3 to PhD.

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First published 2020 by John Catt Educational Ltd, 15 Riduna Park, Station Road, Melton, Woodbridge IP12 1QT Tel: +44 (0) 1394 389850 Fax: +44 (0) 1394 386893 Email: [email protected] Website: www.johncatt.com © 2020 Chris McGrane and Mark McCourt All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. Opinions expressed in this publication are those of the contributors and are not necessarily those of the publishers or the editors. We cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions. ISBN: 978 1 913622 06 0 Set and designed by John Catt Educational Limited

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Table of Contents Foreword7 Biographies11 Introduction21

1 Learning mathematics25 What is mathematics?

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2 The role of tasks31

Tasks and activity 34 Layers of experience 38 Tasks shape impressions of mathematics 42 Conclusion44

3 Curriculum 45 Tony Gardiner The factors influencing the implementation of the curriculum in classrooms The role of textbooks Tasks used to exemplify learning: South Korea and Scotland Improving the system by changing examination tasks

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48 51 53 59

4 Pedagogy63

Associationism64 Gestaltism64 Behaviourism65 Constructivism65 Teaching for Robust Understanding (TRU) 67 Formative assessment in detail 69 Mathematics knowledge for Teaching and professional noticing 74

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Teacher orientations 76 The Japanese approach to mathematics teaching 82 Pedagogy and tasks 87 Classroom discussion 91 Reflections92

5 Classification of Tasks97 The demands of different tasks My approach

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6 Procedural tasks105

Spacing versus massing 106 Practice tasks 108 Multiplication112 Engagement with études 116 Attending to fine details 121 Matching 123 Procedure selection 125 Recognition activity 129 Recall activity 131 Taking attention ‘off’ what we are doing 132 Learner generation 136 Interleaving effect 141

7 Conceptual tasks145 Sorting and matching 146 Classifying148 Multiple representations: interpretation and generation 151 Exploring principles and deliberate interaction with attributes 161 Scaffolded proof 169 Guided discovery 172 Discussing mathematical statements 175 Algebraic identities 176 Combining ideas 177 Interpreting and creating stories 179

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8 Problem-solving tasks183

What matters in successful problem solving? 184 Expertise reversal effect 186 Novel versus familiar work 188 Maturation and varying demands 189 Heuristics191 Activity types 193

9 Task design221 Introduction221 Collaborative planning 222 Creative process 226 Instructional design versus task design 231 Pedagogical insight from writing tasks 231 Creating tasks from templates 233 Adapting tasks 239 Linking with other activity – bringing topics together 252 Planning rich activity from a routine starting point 254 Standing on the shoulders of giants 257 Principles for task design 260 Mathematical themes 274 Learner-generated examples 279 Spontaneous task design 281 Sequencing tasks 283 Don Steward 289 Conclusion294

10 Conclusion295 Bibliography299

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Foreword Abandoned cars strewn the roads as I made my way painfully slowly through the Lake District National Park in torrential rain and gale-force winds on a dark Sunday morning in November 2015. I was driving to a secret spot I know at the foot of the mountain, Helvellyn, where I would park my battered Land Rover and head off up the hill on foot. Visibility was low and the wind strong enough to have brought down multiple trees. But I loved it. That evening, sitting in a hotel room in Kendal, I listened as the news informed me that the storms were set to worsen, and that all travel should be avoided. In the bar later, locals talked in worried tones about the river bursting its banks and the bridge collapsing. The hotel receptionist advised me to head for home. But I hadn’t come to Cumbria just to climb mountains, the next day I was set to meet mathematics teachers from the north of England to talk about teaching for mastery and all that it entails. There was no way I missing the chance to meet teachers. The weather on Monday 16 November 2015 was indeed worse than the day before and I found myself in an empty meeting room without a single delegate and several messages from our office to say that teacher after teacher had decided not to make the journey or had attempted to get to Kendal but failed. It looked as though the event would not go ahead, but three teachers had not been in touch to cancel, so there was hope. They arrived eventually. Battered by the winds and drenched by the rain, but cheery and with the expectation of an interesting day discussing mathematics teaching. One of those teachers had come all the way from Glasgow. That teacher was Chris McGrane and we spent the day talking about and doing mathematics together. It is always nice to meet a kindred spirit in life. I adore mathematics and teaching mathematics, I adore mathematical problems, getting under the skin of something prima facie impenetrable, going through the emotions of bafflement, beginning, struggle and enlightenment. I adore designing mathematical tasks, role playing in my mind what some unknown person would do with the task. How will it be attacked? How might I change elements of the task to bring about different thinking? What will the unknown person take from the task? How might they be different afterwards? 7

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It was clear, from the very first time I met Chris that day, that he shared that love of mathematics and mathematical tasks. By mid-afternoon, the hotel staff were regularly popping into our meeting room to encourage us to leave before the town bridge was closed, but we were having too much fun. In the following years, I have had the pleasure of getting to know Chris. I have visited him in his classroom several times and spoken to him at length about mathematics education. I have also been able to enjoy working with him as a colleague when he joined La Salle Education to lead all of our work in Scotland. It was a great appointment to make, the guy is a really smart cookie. When Chris and I started working together, I suggested to him that we should write a new book, which would capture many of the shared interests we have; task and curriculum design were the obvious targets and this book is the result. This book is Chris’s story. You will notice the first person is used throughout – this is Chris’s voice and very much his book. My role was in suggesting the book and that it might emerge from discussions with educators. The idea of a series of interviews with a wide variety of thinkers involved in teaching mathematics and in mathematics education more broadly led to invitations being sent to the wonderful contributors you will encounter in the pages that follow. We were determined at the outset to ensure that this book did not fall into the trap of education fundamentalism. Too often today, educators seem determined to place themselves in a tribe at the expense of considering nuance and the possibility that genuine enlightenment might lie in conversations with those with whom they disagree. We were absolutely delighted that so many wonderful mathematics educators agreed to be interviewed for this book. Their voices, their contributions, their tasks serve to animate the conversation throughout. And we do hope that it is a conversation with you, the reader. We hope that you will take the words contained here in the good faith with which they are intended – it is not our intent to tell you a correct way to design a mathematical task, but rather to give you access to a range of approaches that a range of educators have found to be impactful in a range of settings. General themes emerge, of course. Perhaps these themes will prove useful to you in your own task design. As the interviews came together and Chris arranged them into a narrative, my role was then to help structure the book, check and advise on research and citations and contribute some of my own writing here and there (I challenge you to spot any of it). We believe that it is through doing mathematics that pupils learn mathematics. And what is it they do? Well, they work on tasks. The task is the medium. It acts 8

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as the bridge from what a teacher knows to what a pupil can learn, and just like the bridge in Kendal that wet, grey day, it is a bridge that is strong and true. Working on this book with Chris has been great fun and genuinely interesting. We don’t always agree and that is at the heart of why I enjoy working with him – one thing we both subscribe to, I think, is Cromwell’s Rule. That is, the use of prior probabilities of 1 or 0 should be avoided. We are both sincerely interested in continuing to learn and both understand that mathematics and mathematics education are not static disciplines – they are in motion, still evolving, still being added to. We are both very open to the idea that we could be mistaken. This is why it was so important to us to include contributors from across the full spectrum of beliefs about mathematics education and we invite you to think carefully about what is proposed, particularly when it is a stated position with which you disagree. As the statistician, Dennis Lindley, put it, assigning a probability should ‘leave a little probability for the moon being made of green cheese; it can be as small as 1 in a million, but have it there since otherwise an army of astronauts returning with samples of the said cheese will leave you unmoved’. In reading the contributions within this book, I have changed my mind about several things I previously held to be true. Chris has expertly brought together the thoughts and ideas of some of the most interesting mathematics education researchers and practitioners around today, whilst at all times shining a light on these insights from the perspective of a real mathematics classroom and the practical challenges faced there. Mark McCourt London August 2020

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Biographies In conducting research for this book, I had the privilege of speaking to and corresponding with a variety of outstanding mathematics educators. This book contains extracts from many of these conversations. A number of educators also kindly contributed tasks for this book. Below are brief biographies of all those who generously gave their time and ideas.

Mike Askew Mike has been a teacher since 1978. He started his career in primary schools and although most of his work is now in teacher professional development, he still thinks of himself as a teacher. Mike has taught all around the world and wherever he goes is always delighted by the joy that learners, young and old, can find in mathematical activity. As well as being a speaker and writer, Mike is Adjunct Professor of Education at Monash University, Melbourne. He has also been Professor of Mathematics Education at King’s College, London and was a Director of BEAM Education, specialising in the publication of support materials and professional development for primary mathematics.

Andrew Blair Dr Andrew Blair has been a teacher of mathematics for 30 years in inner-city comprehensive schools. He has been the head of department in four schools over 20 of those years and is currently Head of Mathematics at Haverstock School in Camden (London). Andrew devised the Inquiry Maths model to harness and develop students’ creativity, initiative and agency. Students learn to reason mathematically by following lines of inquiry and to regulate and direct the course of their inquiries. Andrew set up the influential website www.inquirymaths.org to share classroom experiences of mathematical inquiry. Teachers from around the world have contributed to the site. Andrew has a PhD in maths education from King’s College, London. His thesis focuses on the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning in Inquiry Maths lessons. 11

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Sam Blatherwick Sam Blatherwick is Head of Maths at Ashby School in North West Leicestershire. He has been teaching maths for 10 years and has been Head of Maths for two years. Sam’s particular interests at the moment, as a Head of Faculty, are the development of reasoning and problem solving with lower attainers at GCSE level, and the development of conceptual understanding of higher GCSE content to prepare students for A level maths. He shares ideas and activities on his blog, www.logsandroots.wordpress.com.

Laurinda Brown Laurinda Brown is a retired Honorary Reader in Mathematics Teacher Education at the University of Bristol, School of Education. She is enjoying supervising doctoral students, writing and editing as always, but missing teaching on the PGCE mathematics course that was the central part of her professional life. For more information and a publications listing, see www. bristol.ac.uk/education/people/laurinda-c-brown/index.html.

Hugh Burkhardt Hugh Burkhardt is Emeritus Professor of Education at the University of Nottingham. He has been at the Shell Centre for Mathematical Education at the University of Nottingham since 1976, as Director until 1992. Since then he has led a series of international projects including, in the US, Balanced Assessment, the Math Assessment Resource Service (MARS), and its development of a Toolkit for Change Agents. He is the Project Director of MARS with particular responsibility for project processes and progress; he is also a Visiting Professor at Michigan State University. Hugh takes an ‘engineering’ view of educational research and development – that it is about systematic design and development to make a complex system work better, with theory as a guide and empirical evidence the ultimate arbiter. His core interest is in the dynamics of curriculum change. He sees assessment as one important ‘tool for change’ among the many that are needed to achieve some resemblance between goals of policy and outcomes in practice. His other interests include making mathematics more functional for everyone, through teaching real problem-solving and mathematical modelling, computer-aided maths education, software interface design and human–computer interaction. Hugh, along with his colleague at the Shell Centre Malcolm Swan, was the first recipient of the Emma Castelnuovo Award for Excellence in the Practice of Mathematics Education, awarded by the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI). In 2013, he won the ISDDE Prize for Excellence in Educational Design for ‘his leadership of the Shell Centre for 12

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Mathematical Education, his contributions to a large number of its influential products, and the development of its engineering research methodology’.

Tom Carson Tom Carson has taught mathematics in secondary schools in Glasgow and is currently the Principal Teacher at Hillhead High School. He is currently working on a doctorate investigating the link between thinking philosophically and thinking mathematically. He is particularly interested in how this might help prepare for shifts in attention as students work on problems. Tom can be found on Twitter as @offpistemaths

Jonathan Dunning Jonathan has been teaching maths for 10 years, after an earlier career working for NGOs and the NHS. He spent nine years at Leventhorpe School, where he ended up as Head of Maths and ran the subject knowledge course for the local School Centred Initial Teacher Training (SCITT); for many years, he was also involved with the PGCE at Cambridge University. Jonathan is currently settled at Saffron Walden County High School, where his main interest is working with colleagues to embed effective tasks into schemes of work. He can be found on Twitter as @WaysWithMaths.

Colin Foster Colin Foster is a Reader in Mathematics Education at Loughborough University’s Mathematics Education Centre. His research interests focus on the learning and teaching of mathematics in ways that support students’ conceptual understanding. He is particularly interested in the design and use of rich tasks in the mathematics classroom, and in finding ways to enable students to develop the necessary fluency in mathematical processes to support them in solving mathematical problems. His website is www.foster77.co.uk and he is on Twitter as @colinfoster77.

Tom Francome Tom is a Senior Fellow in the Centre for Mathematical Cognition at Loughborough University’s Mathematics Education Centre. He taught mathematics in schools and worked for many years as a Head of Mathematics and Head of Faculty. Tom established an innovative approach with his department, built on the philosophy that every pupil can develop as a mathematician through sensitive teaching, collective effort and rich mathematical experiences; this approach was recognised nationally when his department won the TES Award for ‘Maths Team of the Year 2015’. Tom also contributed lesson materials for the EEF13

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funded project on Best Practice in Mixed-Attainment Teaching, and this work was awarded the 2016 BCF-BERA Routledge Curriculum Journal Prize. Tom was previously a lecturer in secondary mathematics education at the University of Birmingham. He now teaches on Loughborough University’s outstanding mathematics PGCE and, in his wider role at the Centre, works to integrate basic research, academic scholarship and practical experience. Tom is interested in all aspects of educational research, particularly equitable approaches to teaching mathematics and the development of expertise. He is currently conducting PhD research into the nature of practising in mathematics.

Tony Gardiner Until recently, Tony held the position of Reader in Mathematics and Mathematics Education at the University of Birmingham. He was responsible for the foundation of the United Kingdom Mathematics Trust (one of the UK’s largest mathematics enrichment programs) in 1996; he also initiated the Intermediate and Junior Mathematical Challenges, created the Problem Solving Journal for secondary school students and organised numerous masterclasses, summer schools and educational conferences. Tony has contributed to many educational articles and internationally-circulated educational pamphlets. He has also made contributions to the areas of infinite groups, finite groups, graph theory and algebraic combinatorics. In 1994–1995, Tony received the Paul Erdős Award for his contributions to UK and international mathematical challenges and olympiads. In 2011, he was elected Education Secretary of the London Mathematical Society. In 2016, he received the Excellence in Mathematics Education Award from Texas A&M University.

Dave Hewitt Dave Hewitt taught in secondary schools for 11 years, including five as a Head of Faculty. He gained a national reputation as a mathematics teacher before moving into teacher education. He worked as a Lecturer in Mathematics Education at the University of Birmingham, becoming a Senior Lecturer in 2000; in 1994, he gained his PhD based on the idea of the economic use of time and effort in the teaching and learning of mathematics. In 2014, Dave moved to Loughborough University to start a new mathematics teacher training course. In addition to initial teacher education, he has worked with Masters and PhD students at both universities. Dave’s research has focused on several areas including theoretical frameworks – such as dividing the mathematics curriculum into two classifications (arbitrary and necessary) – and empirical studies involving students’ learning 14

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of algebra. He is also interested in the ways technology can be used to help students develop mathematical awareness and gain fluency. To this end, he has developed computer software including Developing Number and Grid Algebra. He has given talks and run sessions at many national and international conferences over the last 30 or more years. Dave has always felt it important to have one foot firmly placed in the mathematics classroom, through his work with trainee teachers in particular, and one foot within the mathematics education research community. He has a strong sense of one informing the other.

Helen Konstantine Helen has worked at the same Barking and Dagenham school for 14 years and became a lead practitioner several years ago; her role is focused on whole school CPD. Helen loves being in the classroom so she is not interested in positions that would reduce her time there. She particularly loves discussing maths with pupils: it is in these moments that she finds ideas for questions, activities or resources. She usually sketches something on the visualiser for the class at that moment, then creates something more permanent on her laptop later. Helen shares many of her tasks on her blog, mathshko.com

Gary Lamb Gary has taught for fourteen years in four different schools and was Principal Teacher of Mathematics at St Andrew’s Academy for almost five years. Now, Gary works as a Mathematics Educator with the La Salle Education team, leading CPD in Scotland. Gary’s main areas of interest are mastery learning, didactics and the science of learning. He is also focused on system-level improvement in mathematics education and is dedicated to narrowing the current attainment gap. With a lived experience of working with pupils who have lost faith in mathematics, Gary has spent much of his career researching and experimenting with ways in which we can rapidly improve learning opportunities and progress of low attaining pupils.

Dan Lewis Dan has taught maths at comprehensive schools in and around London for 12 years, following a fairly unfulfilling stint on a graduate training scheme at an investment bank. For the past several years, his role has been as a senior teacher helping to develop maths teaching in his own school as well as supporting teachers from other local schools. He has also been involved in improving parental engagement with their children’s maths work, which remains a passion of his. 15

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In terms of curriculum, Dan’s primary interest is in teaching and developing approaches to support classes working within a mixed-attainment structure. He is also interested in emerging algebraic thinking and, more recently, the role of proportional reasoning throughout the secondary school curriculum (greater than we might think, he would argue!). Examples of Dan’s resources, general thoughts on maths and maths teaching can be found on Twitter @4301maths.

John Mason John is a retired Professor of Mathematics Education at the Open University. He takes an experiential approach to teaching and is interested in mathematical problem-solving, structure of attention, and the role and use of mental imagery. He now builds applets for his own interest and for use by others. Publications, presentations and animations can be found at pmtheta.com

Gerry McNally Gerry has been teaching mathematics in secondary schools since 2007. Before that, he spent over 20 years working in the betting industry after graduating in Chemistry; he gained a second degree, in Psychology from the Open University, during this time. Gerry sees mathematics as one of the many expressions of the human mind’s ability to seek, perceive, explore and exploit patterns and connections, with a view to making sense of the world and seeking coherence. To his mind, it is a creative and constructive world of ideas and he tries to reflect this view as far as possible in his teaching. Other interests include the natural environment and music; his blog can be found at germinalmaths.com

Dan Meyer Dan Meyer taught high school math to students who didn't like high school math. He has advocated for better math instruction on CNN, Good Morning America, Everyday With Rachel Ray, and http://TED.com. He earned his doctorate from Stanford University in math education and is the Chief Academic Officer at Desmos where he explores the future of math, technology, and learning. He has worked with teachers internationally and in all fifty United States. He was named one of Tech & Learning's 30 Leaders of the Future. He lives in Oakland, CA

Jo Morgan Jo Morgan is a maths teacher and Assistant Principal at a secondary school in South London. She wrote the book A Compendium of Mathematical Methods and she also runs the award-winning website http://resourceaholic.com where 16

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she shares teaching ideas and resource recommendations. Jo is very active in online maths teacher communities, tweeting as @mathsjem. She is an enthusiastic collector of antique maths textbooks and has a keen interest in how maths education has changed over the centuries.

Fawn Nguyen Fawn is a first-year Teacher on Special Assignment (TOSA) with Rio School District in Oxnard, California. Before this, she was a middle school teacher for 30 years. Fawn was the 2014 Ventura County Teacher of the Year, and in 2009 she was recognised as a ‘Math Hero’ by Raytheon. In 2005, she was awarded the Sarah D. Barder Fellowship from the Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth. Fawn blogs about her lessons and classroom teaching at fawnnguyen.com. She authors three websites for teachers – visualpatterns.org, between2numbers. com and mathtalks.net – and she is one of the editors for mathblogging.org. Fawn has been a keynote speaker and workshop facilitator at maths conferences throughout the country. She is also part of the UCSB Mathematics Project leadership team since 2005. In 2012, she co-founded the Math Teachers’ Circle in Thousand Oaks, California. She also served a three-year term as a committee member of NCTM’s Professional Development Services Committee (PDSC) from 2015 to 2018.

Mike Ollerton Mike spent two years in primary schools, 22 years in secondary maths and 10 years in Initial Teacher Education. He still loves teaching and is passionate about problem-solving, inquiry and mixed attainment groups. Mike is the author of many articles and several books. Mike's website is https://mikeollerton.com. Mike can be found on Twitter as @MichaelOllerton

Luke Pearce Luke studied maths at Cambridge, then taught at Highgate School in London (where he was assistant Head of Department) and at Magdalen College School in Oxford. He is currently Head of Department and Head of Assessment at Geneva English School. He shares resources and blog articles on his website http://lukepearce.eu

Richard Perring Richard has been working in maths education for over twenty years. In 2005, he joined the Devon Learning and Development Partnership, working as a consultant to help develop the Secondary National Strategies for Maths. Since then, he has worked in a number of roles, including some time as Associate 17

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Director for Secondary at the NCETM. At the same time, he has worked on several textbooks and other publications and projects. Now freelance, Richard leads Work Groups for his local maths hub and contributes to projects for NCETM, including the Secondary Teaching for Mastery programme. He is particularly interested in the use of pictures and representations to challenge students to think mathematically. Richard can be found on Twitter as @LearningMaths!

Chris Smith Chris Smith teaches Maths in East Ayrshire. He was Scottish Teacher of the Year in 2018 and is a member of the Scottish Mathematical Council, TES Maths Panel and Enterprising Maths in Scotland team. Chris is heavily involved in Maths Week Scotland, creating and running the national ‘Maths wi nae Borders’ competition since 2017. Chris tweets as @aap03102, is married to Elaine, has three young Mathematicians called Daisy, Heidi and Logan and, carried along by the rest of #TeamSmith, he won the 2019 series of “Family Brain Games”, a BBC programme hosted by Dara O Briain. Chris is passionate about puzzles and committed to inspiring young people with the undeniable relevance and unashamedly geeky beauty of Mathematics. His annual PiDay antics are legendary and the subject of his 2015 TEDx talk. Chris is well known for his Mathematical songs too- the piano is often out in his classroom as he leads his students in singing classics like “the PI-MCA”, “Use a Ruler” and “Quadratic Formula Song”. Since 2007, Chris has written a free weekly Maths newsletter with lesson ideas, Maths trivia, puzzles and a milk rota. The newsletter now has thousands of subscribers- just email [email protected] if you’d like to sign up.

Dave Taylor Dave has taught in inner city schools in Leeds for 12 years; he has spent the last 10 years in his current school, seven of them as a TLR (Teaching and Learning Responsibility) holder. He has a desire to teach children the correct maths at the correct time, and to build children’s confidence in their mathematical abilities. You can find some of his tasks at http://taylorda01.weebly.com.

Andy Thompson Andy is currently Lead Officer for maths and numeracy with the Northern Alliance Regional Improvement Collaborative. Prior to that he was a maths teacher, Principal Teacher and Deputy Head Teacher in Highland. Andy co-authored Leckie & Leckies’s N5 and Higher mathematics textbooks. He has also worked extensively with, and for, the Scottish Qualifications 18

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Authority and, until recently, was part of the examination team for Advanced Higher mathematics. After moving to Shetland in 2018, Andy took on positions as an acting Head Teacher and Deputy Head Teacher, before taking the Northern Alliance role on a full-time basis. He has a keen interest in what research can tell us about mathematics teaching in higher achieving countries but retains a passion for all things related to good pedagogy. Andy can be found on Twitter as @thompo71

Anne Watson Anne Watson is a retired Professor of Mathematics Education at the University of Oxford and her main focus now (of many) is the design of pedagogy throughout school. Output is at http://pmtheta.com. She contributes prolifically to the ATM journal Mathematics Teaching, often arguing that professional wisdom is a valid source of evidence for effective teaching.

David Wees David is a former mathematics teacher turned educational consultant. He has 29 years of experience in education in a variety of roles and has taught in such far-flung places as NYC, London, Bangkok and Vancouver. David currently works remotely from his island paradise of Denman Island, British Columbia, writing curricula and running workshops for teachers. He blogs at https:// davidwees.com.

Susan Whitehouse Susan spent the first fifteen years of her career teaching A level Maths and Further Maths at London sixth form colleges, where she developed a particular interest in increasing access to Further Maths for disadvantaged students. Since 2010 she has been working as an educational consultant in a variety of roles, which currently include Pedagogy Lead and lesson observer on the MEI Teaching Advanced Maths (TAM) course. She is a co-author of the Hodder Education A level Maths textbooks. In 2011 she started sharing free resources on the TES website; they have since been downloaded 1.6 million times. These resources are also available via her website: https://susanrwhitehouse.wixsite. com/maths

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Introduction The respected educational researcher Michael Fullan coined the following phrase: Focus on fundamentals: Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment and Professional Culture (Fullan, 1997) To improve the quality of learning in our classrooms, we need to constantly strive for improvement across these key areas. I like to think of these fundamentals in a simplified way: • Curriculum: what we are to teach, and what the pupils are to learn. • Instruction: how we are to teach. • Assessment: how we are to establish the extent of learning and the effectiveness of our teaching. • Professional culture: how we are to work together to become better at all of the above. I’ve come back to this quote time and again. Every time, I give pause to the work I am doing. When I became a head of department, I regularly found myself very busy. I would reflect on how much of whatever I was busy doing had any impact on these fundamentals. The fundamentals helped to keep my eye on the goal. On reflection, I began to realise that one of the things I spent significant amounts of time thinking about was tasks. I would scour the internet and textbooks to find tasks for my pupils to engage with. I would spend time creating new tasks. I would have conversations with colleagues about how tasks had played out in their classrooms. I would populate my scheme of work with tasks, to bring dry curriculum documents to life. Tasks were the focus of a significant amount of my time. It is this that leads me to say that tasks are the fifth fundamental. They are related to, yet independent of, all the other fundamentals Fullan listed. Doyle states that ‘mathematics classroom 21

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instruction is generally organised around and delivered through pupils’ activities on mathematical tasks’ (Doyle, 1988). Given the central role tasks play, surely we can extend Fullan’s list of fundamentals to include them? Continuing my simplified definitions from above, we might consider: • Tasks: devices through which pupils interact with the mathematics we are trying to teach. This book begins with chapters exploring some theory of tasks before considering the role of tasks in the curriculum and the relationship between tasks and pedagogy. The second section of the book considers three broad types of task: • tasks for developing procedural fluency and technical skill • tasks for developing conceptual understanding • tasks for use in the development of problem solving. The final section of the book focuses on the creative process of task design. Before all of this, though, it is important to consider what we mean by mathematics and what it is to learn mathematics. The first chapter spends time examining this, as our beliefs about the nature of mathematics influence how we teach. It is rare to find an author who does not have a bias towards a particular position. I am no different. My position is captured by Banwell and Pólya respectively. In general, mathematics cannot be received; it has to be enacted. (Banwell, Saunders and Tahta, 1972) Learning begins with action and perception, proceeds from thence to words and concepts, and should end in desirable mental habits. (Pólya, 1962) I have attempted to be balanced, acknowledging the nuance that lies at the heart of every part of education. I am not an ardent defender of direct instructional approaches, married with drill exercises. Neither am I promoting entirely progressive approaches. Instead, I have sought a middle ground. I lay out an approach to thinking, rooted in pragmatic classroom reality, which I have arrived at after 15 years of teaching. I hope that this thinking will continue to evolve over time. I encourage you, while reading, to be critical and to interrogate the arguments I make. 22

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Introduction

This book does not attempt to convey mathematics teaching in a simplified or mechanical way. Instead, it is an attempt to bring to a wider audience some ways of thinking about mathematics teaching and the tasks we use. This is very much a book for teachers, written by a teacher. There is a plethora of knowledge about mathematics education, trapped in journals, and I have drawn upon some of this academic writing. I have interviewed some of the most illustrious names in mathematics education research, who have freely and generously given me their time. Similarly, I have called upon excellent classroom teachers to share their expertise and ideas. Much of the material in this book is fresh and won’t be found elsewhere as it is drawn from these conversations. Where I quote somebody and provide no reference, it is because it was said directly to me in conversation. I have written this book in the belief that every child can learn and every child is entitled to experience the joy of our subject. Education is not deterministic like agriculture or medicine. We can never say, ‘this will work for every child’. However, I truly hope that what you find in this book will help to take your thinking and, more importantly, your practice, forward in a way that helps more of your pupils to learn better. For every complex problem, there is an answer that is clear, simple and wrong. H. L. Mencken

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1 Learning mathematics What is mathematics? There is no universally agreed definition of mathematics. Aristotle described the subject as ‘the science of quantity’. This and other definitions, which focus on magnitude and counting, fail to account for much of the content of the subject. Many areas of mathematics bear no obvious relation to measurement or the physical world. There are formalist definitions such as ‘mathematics is the manipulation of the meaningless symbols of a first-order language according to explicit, syntactical rules’ (Snapper, 1979). However, formalist definitions seem to make the symbols and notation the object of study. These definitions ignore both the physical and mental meaning of mathematics. Henri Poincaré moved beyond simplistic ideas of number and symbols, stating that ‘mathematics is the art of giving the same name to different things’ (Verhulst, 2012). This quote hints at one of the essential ideas in our subject: the act of generalisation. Taking the specific, spotting patterns and relationships, and extracting an abstract generalisation that is independent of the specific. Karl Fredrick Gauss took the perspective that mathematics was about ideas, famously arguing that ‘what we need are notions, not notations’ (Gauss, 2009). A universal definition of the subject is unlikely to be agreed upon. The tension of the subject being viewed as both an art and a science is perhaps responsible for this. Dave Hewitt describes mathematical knowledge as being either ‘arbitrary’ or ‘necessary’, hinting towards potential pedagogical approaches to establishing such knowledge. Some things require pupils to be told and other things can be found out by engagement with mathematics. • Arbitrary: For example, one needs to remember the association between the word ‘square’ and a shape exhibiting a certain set of properties. You need to be told this – it is a convention. • Necessary: For example, ‘the angles in a triangle sum to 180°’. This can be established through many practical activities. 25

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In his famous book, A Mathematician’s Lament, Paul Lockhart takes a stand against a utilitarian perspective: It would be bad enough if the culture were merely ignorant of mathematics, but what is far worse is that people actually think they do know what math is about – and are apparently under the gross misconception that mathematics is somehow useful to society! This is already a huge difference between mathematics and the other arts. Mathematics is viewed by the culture as some sort of tool for science and technology. Everyone knows that poetry and music are for pure enjoyment and for uplifting and ennobling the human spirit (hence their virtual elimination from the public-school curriculum) but no, math is important. (Lockhart, 2009) While I agree with Lockhart that mathematics is an art, it would be remiss to dismiss the practical applications of the subject in everyday life and in many other academic disciplines. Pupil experience of school mathematics should, where appropriate, acknowledge potential applications and engage pupils in meaningful contextual work. Mark McCourt elegantly describes what it means to possess a mathematical disposition: Mathematicians are curious in all aspects of their lives. Mathematicians, when faced with a problem, enjoy the state of not yet knowing the resolution (indeed, knowing there may not even be a resolution). Because they are curious, mathematicians, when faced with a problem, ask themselves questions of it. They can specialise, pattern spot, conjecture, generalise, try to disprove, argue with themselves, monitor their own thinking, reflect and notice how these new encounters have changed them as a human being. That is to say, mathematics is an epistemological model: a way of considering the very nature of knowledge. (McCourt, 2019)

What is to be learned?

Contrasting perspectives on what mathematics is lead inevitably to contrasting views on what school mathematics should be. There is a necessity for pupils to learn facts and procedures: they need to develop fluency with key procedures 26

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and become intimately familiar with ‘fact families’. However, Schoenfeld (Schoenfeld, 1992) makes the important point that: a curriculum based on mastering a corpus of mathematical facts and procedures is severely impoverished – in much the same way that an English curriculum would be considered impoverished if it focused largely, if not exclusively, on issues of grammar. Similarly, Tom Francome argues: I don’t subscribe to the idea that only experts can be mathematicians. I think anyone can be a mathematician by doing the sort of thing that mathematicians do: asking questions, making and testing conjectures, explaining ideas, being organised and systematic, etc. My teaching is about creating opportunities for pupils to do those things, but within the constraints of the curriculum. So, whatever I’m doing today there is the minimum of what everyone should get – ‘the curriculum content’ – but there is extra stuff around about it. Tom’s view captures my own thinking. It is important to acknowledge the curriculum material and to teach it, so that pupils can develop technical proficiency and gain a deep understanding of it. However, attention must also be given to pupils’ mathematical identity: pupils need opportunities to develop a sense of themselves as mathematicians, as posers of problems, or inquirers. Colin Foster shared a pragmatic perspective when I asked him what constitutes a positive mathematics curriculum: It’s a value-laden question of what constitutes a good experience. For me, at the heart of maths is problem solving. It is being able to take an unfamiliar situation and make sense of it mathematically. However, I no longer think that problem solving has to be the main thing that happens in the classroom. Probably while I was teaching, I did have that view that real maths was solving problems and anything else I felt a little bit embarrassed about doing. I think that problem solving is the top of the pyramid but to make that really effective, we do need to do other things like develop fluency to get pupils into a position where they can make sense of mathematical problems. So now I’m 27

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much less apologetic about focusing on things that aren’t problem solving. But I still think that my main, ultimate goal is for pupils to be able to be powerful mathematically and be able to solve problems they’d not seen before – not just repeating stuff they’ve seen but being able to be creative and innovative. That doesn’t just happen by giving pupils lots of problems; instead, I think there’s work we need to do to get them to the point where they can do that. The Singaporean curriculum places problem solving at its centre, with all other strands of mathematical thinking and behaviour supporting this. Monitoring of ones’s own thinking Self-regulation of learning

s

Mathematical problem solving

ro c

Atti t

S k il l s

Numerical calculation Algebraic manipulation Spatial visualization, Estimation Data analysis, Measurement Use of mathematical tools

Meta cog

on niti

s ude

e sse

Beliefs, Interest, Appreciation Confidence, Perseverance

C on cepts

P

Reasoning, communication and connections Applications and modelling Thinking skills and heuristics

Numeric, Algebraic, Geometric Statistical, Probabilistic, Analytical

(Singapore Ministry of Education, 2012) I write this book with the belief that all pupils can be mathematicians, can solve problems and can develop positive mathematical self-perceptions. I appreciate the real challenges of working in inner city schools in the UK, the accountability of the examination system and the negative attitudes many young people hold. However, I argue that we need to teach mathematics deeply, richly and in the fullest of senses. A focus on procedures and facts only is severely limiting and, in my view, part of the ‘attainment problem’ in our subject. I use three broad categories of task throughout this book as the basis for thinking about mathematics learning: • procedural tasks • conceptual tasks • problem-solving tasks. 28

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It is only though engagement with tasks that pupils can begin to learn. All three of these task types are essential for a rich, meaningful, enjoyable and effective mathematics learning experience across the duration of schooling. While much of the debate in education focuses on pedagogy, I hold the view that tasks are a key determinant of pupil learning. Informally, it’s not ‘how’ we teach that matters, it’s what we ask pupils ‘to do’ with what they are learning.

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2 The role of tasks The tasks teachers present pupils with and the way in which pupils discern mathematical meaning by working on tasks largely determine pupils’ classroom experiences and their learning of mathematics. (Hiebert, 1997) This book has, as its main focus, mathematical tasks. One important question that needs to be addressed then is: Why do we have tasks? I posed this to John Mason, who captured the idea nicely, saying: from the most ancient historical records that we have, namely going back to Babylonian tablets and Egyptian papyrus, people have given pupils mathematical tasks. The reason is that it is only in approaching a task and working on a problem that you are doing mathematics. Mathematics is about solving problems. There are a lot of different uses of the word ‘problem’, from routine tasks, as often found in textbooks, through to completely unsolved things, which is what I tend to work on. I agree with Paul Halmos and various other mathematicians that mathematics is about problem solving. More specifically, I like to begin a session, even if it’s a session on mathematics education, with some common shared mathematics, because I think it’s only possible to talk about teaching and learning if you’ve had some shared mathematical experience that you can refer to. Engagement with tasks results in activity from which discussion and reflection can follow. Anne Watson suggested that designing tasks might be about designing environments and situations which pupils can enter and possibly learn some mathematics from.

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I want to use the word ‘task’ for anything that you give to pupils to do, be it complex or simple. For example, ‘ finding the missing number’ problems such as ‘? + 3 = 7’ are tasks. Likewise, something like ‘ find out the traffic flow on the Forth Bridge at different times of day and use that to predict if we need a new bridge’ is also a task. You are setting up a situation in which somebody, through engaging with the task, has got to do some mathematics. Tasks play a central role in mathematics classrooms. Lappan and Briars argue that ‘there is no decision that teachers make that has a greater impact on pupils’ opportunities to learn and on their perceptions about what mathematics is than the selection or creation of the tasks.’ (Lappan and Briars, 1995) Doyle, in his review of research on tasks (Doyle, 1988), suggested that tasks might be thought of as the point where curriculum, social order, classroom management, instruction and learning meet. This seems a significant burden to put on a task. Building on Doyle’s writing, we might say that tasks are selected to help pupils engage with the curriculum content and that they are used as part of a teacher’s instruction. The teacher might complete some tasks to teach – we call these examples. The pupils will then work on some tasks to interact with the mathematics. The tasks as examples or for pupils to work on are an important catalyst for learning to happen. The teacher might also choose specific tasks with social order or classroom management in mind. A rich collaborative investigation with practical equipment creates a very different feel in a classroom compared with silent work on a drill exercise. I can recall several challenging groups I have taught where the task selection was also informed by classroom management considerations. According to Doyle, tasks can be thought of as having the following components. In every case I have expanded his definition to include more ideas.

Product

In many cases, the product of a task is the answer to the questions within the task. It might be an oral response, a worked solution shared by a pupil with other members of the class, a poster, or a completed card sort. Anything which is the result of pupil work (written or mental) is the product: the product is the end point of the task.

Process

The process involves the operations used to produce the product. For example, this might involve applying some ‘rule’, selecting appropriate answers from a list, formulating a solution to a novel problem, classifying objects by their properties, or representing an idea in an alternative way. The process is the activity the pupils undertake.

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Resources

These are the tools available to pupils in the process phase, for example, notes and examples, textbooks, concrete manipulatives, or conversations with other pupils or the teacher. Anything which can help pupils to process the task is a resource.

In some tasks, the stakes are high; summative examinations are the obvious example. In contrast, formative assessment tasks – while still important – are generally less weighted. Routine classwork, where the teacher might not check pupil solutions, may be perceived as ‘low stakes’. For other tasks, involving Accountability group work, pupils might be accountable to each other through the implicit social contract among peers. Homework tasks might have high levels of accountability for a different reason – for example, there may be negative consequences for the pupil if the work is not completed.

In Doyle’s research review, he notes that most of the classes involved in studies were set up for efficient production: in terms of the components listed above, he observed a focus on the product. The classrooms were set up around routine ways of working, such as warm-ups or sets of exercises. Typically, work was defined explicitly and pupils were given a lot of guidance. Tasks in these highproduction classrooms were usually familiar and pupils were rarely required to assemble information or processes in ways that had not been demonstrated. The content was divided into small chunks and instruction focused on algorithmic ‘steps’ to be taken. Having pupils engage in routine work is a valid pedagogical choice. However, as I will argue throughout this book, pupils need engagement in a range of mathematical activities to develop a complete understanding and to develop their mathematical actions and patterns of thinking. Of course, the product of pupil work is important. We can establish whether pupils have mastered some procedure, if they can produce correct answers. However, if pupils do not succeed then we need to examine the process. Further, in the development of conceptual understanding and problem solving, a focus on the product is insufficient. Tasks are the catalyst for the process. The physical dimension of the process is what the pupil does, but the key concern for us as teachers should be the mental dimension – what the pupil is thinking about. A core principle of this book is that the nature of pupil (cognitive) activity is what influences the acquisition of understanding, meaning and overall learning.

Cognitive activity Product

Task Observable activity

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When choosing a task, we should first consider the question, ‘what will pupils think about?’

Tasks and activity Mathematics can be thought of as being made up of various topics. These topics are, among other things, collections of definitions, ideas, procedures, relationships, theorems, concepts, representations, language and behaviours. Tasks act as a bridge between the mathematics and the pupils. They serve as a basis for pupils to interact with mathematics in purposeful ways and, hopefully, to develop some level of understanding. This interaction takes the form of ‘activity’. This activity is distinct from the task itself; rather, it is the mathematical processes in which pupils engage while doing the task. This distinction is important because pupils may work on a task without the desired level of mathematical activity. When actions become devoid of meaning, there is unlikely to be learning. Engagement is a poor proxy for learning. Mason and Johnston-Wilder capture this concisely: The purpose of a task is to initiate mathematically fruitful activity that leads to a transformation in what learners are sensitised to notice and competent to carry out. (Mason and Johnston-Wilder, 2006) In creating, selecting or adapting tasks, teachers need to consider how the likely actions of pupils will connect with the intended learning. In working on tasks, pupils may encounter specific mathematical concepts, practise techniques and have opportunities to behave mathematically. However, even having successfully completed a task and engaged in significant mathematical activity, there is no guarantee that pupils will have learned. Christiansen and Walther explain that the tasks given to pupils, and their associated activity, are the basis for mathematical interaction between the teacher and pupils. They emphasise the social nature of learning: Learning cannot take place through activity performed by an individual in isolation, but must unfold in relation to activity mediated by other persons – the teacher, the parents, the peer group etc. (Christiansen and Walther, 1986) Tasks play a key role in enabling meaningful interactions. When I spoke to Anne Watson, she said there were other purposes for designing tasks which we might consider. For example, some tasks might be about developing ‘the social 34

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working climate of the classroom – tasks which promote discussion or develop groupwork’. If the interactions support the tasks we want pupils to work on, we can use other tasks to develop those interactions. It might be that we use some tasks which are ‘maths-lite’ to establish ways of working, before ramping up the cognitive demand. Teachers cannot do the learning for pupils, but an important teacher action is to initiate reflection on the activity and to draw together the intended learning. This is good practice whatever sort of task pupils have been engaged in – be it a routine textbook exercise or a rich investigation: otherwise, despite meticulous planning, it is possible for pupils to engage in a task without recognising the point of the activity. They can copy and complete a table of values without ever becoming aware of the relationships in the table; they can draw a diagram as an exercise in copying, without ever paying attention to how the diagram is built up, what can change and what relationships are invariant; they can do a suite of exercises, get most or all of them correct, and yet not learn anything from the effort. (Mason and Johnston-Wilder, 2006) Standing back to reflect on the task solution and the thinking used in completion of the task is essential. In some cases, the task may be constructed such that this reflection is a built-in design feature, but generally this reflection is explicitly prompted by the teacher. This might be a whole-class discussion, or an opportunity for pupils to talk in pairs. Over time, successful learners of mathematics can develop this metacognitive strategy and use it without prompting. Tahta expressed the notion of inner and outer tasks: the outer task is what the pupil is explicitly asked to do, whereas the inner task is the awareness and understanding the teacher hopes the pupil will encounter and develop through doing the task. The teacher needs to ensure the inner task is visible to all pupils (Tahta, 1981). Askew offers words of caution: If children are going to develop mathematical confidence, curiosity and a have-a-go attitude, there needs to be a certain ‘gap’ between the task that a teacher sets and the children’s subsequent mathematical activity. Teaching which strives to narrow the gap between task and activity, for example through careful instructions that children have to follow, may lead to short-term success but not long-term learning. (Askew, 2015) 35

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With this in mind, we need to be careful when talking about what it means for a lesson to ‘go well’. If a pupil fails to complete a task, we should not automatically assume this is a negative outcome. The pupil might have been engaged in a high level of productive cognitive activity and made significant steps in their learning, even if the product is not evident. The focus, again, has to be on the mathematical activity in which the pupil engaged. The role of the teacher is to use a range of strategies, possibly involving other tasks, to establish what the pupil now understands of the ideas. It is not the task itself which is important. Instead, understanding of the mathematics is the key focus. Johnston-Wilder and Mason emphasise the value of making the distinction between task and activity – that it: helps to free teachers from expectations that learners will all do the same thing in the same way, and to open up sensitivity to the richness of what emerges. This will also facilitate awareness of the kinds of questions to ask which might promote particular mathematical awarenesses and thinking. (Johnston-Wilder and Mason, 2004) One of the problems we face is that it is much easier to think about tasks in terms of what pupils will do, rather than what they will think. It is easier to manipulate actions and behaviour than thought processes. Anne Watson explained the problem with this as follows: What is it that we create in a learner’s mind about what it means to do mathematics? Do is the verb. What we do is teach them lots of things to do. We solve, we calculate, we simplify, we expand. Everything is an imperative verb, and yet we know that this is not mathematics. We are very busy giving them the view that mathematics is about deciding what to do, working out what do and remembering what to do. Think of the contrast in the questions: • What did you do in maths today? • What did you learn in maths today? • What was the big idea in maths today? When there is an emphasis on the word do we have pupils being able to say that we were factorising quadratics, but not actually being able to say very much about what quadratics are or how they relate to anything else they have previously learned. So, to me, the conjecturing, 36

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proving, discerning etc are part of the mathematics and I think that those need to be embedded in the way the classroom operates. Even if I’ve got the missing number problem, ? + 3 = 7, this isn’t about what you do, it is about what this means. The key question is about how we read this. We read it as ‘I don’t know what this number is, but I do know if I add 3 to it I get 7.’ Then you can decide what to do. In secondary, learners encounter x + 3 = 7 and we are suddenly very busy balancing etc but have lost a sense of what it is we are doing. Tasks don’t live alone, there has to be an associated pedagogy. I am deeply worried that a lot of the discussion at the moment is not about the pedagogy, it is about what do we do. Then somehow, we hope that learners make mathematical sense of it. But what we are actually training them in is what they have to do. When pupils see a test question, they ask ‘what do I do?’ not ‘what does this mean?’. It is all about the culture. The culture of doing and remembering is not mathematical culture to my mind. When I do maths for myself, I have noticed why I get stuck. It is usually that I haven’t sufficiently thought ‘what does it mean?’ and I’ve gone into doing things, such as expressing in algebra and doing manipulation before I’ve really thought about the meaning properly. General focus

Examples of specific actions

basic actions

calculating, doing procedures, stating facts

transformative

organising, rearranging, systematising, visualising, representing

concept-building comparing, classifying, generalising, structuring, extending, restricting, defining, relating to familiar and intuitive ideas problem-solving, conjecturing, assuming, symbolising, modelling, predicting, proving, applying explaining, verifying, justifying, refuting, testing special cases interdisciplinary incorporating other epistemologies, identifying variables connections and structures, recognising similarities, comparing familiar/unfamiliar

(Watson and Ohtani, 2015) The table above illustrates some specific actions related to intended task purposes. The actions below the top line are more likely to involve higher order thinking. When creating, selecting or adapting tasks, teachers should have in mind not only the task purpose but also the actions that will be involved. It is straightforward to have pupils perform basic actions such as calculating, doing 37

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procedures or stating facts. This is what makes up the majority of textbook questions in the UK. It is harder to create tasks which will invoke a range of concept-building actions. It is important that teachers recognise tasks which address these needs in addition to content requirements. A skilled teacher can elevate a routine task so that actions beyond the basic are required of pupils. For concept building and development of problem solving, pupils need opportunities to think beyond basic actions. During and after engaging in these actions, dialogue is essential. Pupils require opportunities to express ideas and share their thinking with each other and with their teacher. The teacher plays an important role in prompting, questioning and offering potential actions for consideration. If we consider the actions associated with ‘problem-solving, proving, applying’ (in the table above), these terms need to become part of the descriptive language used in the classroom. The teacher can promote this while developing ways of working with a class.

Layers of experience To learn mathematics means to develop an awareness of the object of study. This begins with the pupil interacting with the mathematics in some purposeful way. Through a succession of appropriate tasks, the properties of the topic can be appreciated and internalised. Completion of tasks alone is rarely adequate; reflection on the end product and the process undertaken to arrive there are also important. If one takes the view of a topic as being more than just a list of procedures to be practised or a series of definitions to be learned, there is an inevitable widening of the range of mathematical task types required for learning. John Mason has often said: ‘Teaching takes place in time; learning takes place over time.’ That is, teaching is an observable act: it is something tangible that can be witnessed. Learning, however, is not observable and cannot be witnessed. Learning is the result of a range of experiences over time. This has consequences when planning to use tasks. In the short term, pupils need to interact with new ideas in a variety of ways to develop conceptual understanding. In the long term, the maturation of these ideas will support problem solving, if they are routinely revisited and built upon. When selecting, adapting and creating tasks, we may have one or several possible purposes in mind. I offer a non-exhaustive list of potential task purposes: • • • •

develop fluency with algorithms learn definitions and theorems recognise when to apply an algorithm practice for exams

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• • • • • •

interpret ideas contrast alternative approaches use problem-solving processes develop understanding of concepts develop an awareness of how ideas connect to previous learning develop awareness of multiple representations.

If the purposes of tasks are rooted solely in the first four items above, pupils will not gain a rounded experience of mathematics. I argue that this narrow focus will limit what pupils can achieve. As Mason and JohnstonWilder (2006) say: ‘A succession of experiences, is not the same as an experience of succession.’ Consider the topic of quadratics. At the time of learning, this is often the most mathematically sophisticated topic pupils have encountered. There are numerous ideas to be understood, different representations to be interpreted and various procedural skills required. This topic is the springboard from simple linear functions to later study of calculus. To demonstrate the enormity of what pupils must contend with, I have listed some of the ideas and skills they must learn: • the relationship between algebraic representation, tabular representation and graphical representation • that each coordinate on the graphical representation is an instance which satisfies the equation • the various transformations of graphs • the general form y = ax2 + bx + c • roots and how to find them • the y-intercept and how to find it • the algorithm for completing the square • turning points and how to find them from any given representation • axes of symmetry and their relationship with roots and completed square form • axes of symmetry and their relationship with turning points • the form y = k(x − a)(x − b) and finding missing values • the discriminant and related problems • the quadratic formula • iterative methods • applications in context • how all of the methods relate to each other.

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Typically in textbooks, there is a succession of procedurally-focused tasks for pupils to engage with. A frequent experience in my career is that pupils are often able to perform the procedural tasks from the textbook well, but later, when presented with a question or problem in isolation, they are not sure which method to select. I argue for an alternative focus, beyond the learning of ‘steps’ and methods: I aspire for understanding of quadratics to complement pupils’ algebraic competency. Another issue is that pupils often lack awareness that these ideas are highly connected and, as a result, are unaware of how to transform one representation to another (or even that they are related at all). This must be given explicit attention. Procedural tasks are not enough. There need to be tasks which focus on conceptual understanding, tasks which pose non-routine questions, tasks where pupils have to make connections etc. In a recent Scottish national examination, pupils were given a quadratic and asked to sketch it, showing key points such as roots, the y-intercept and turning points. The vast majority of pupils did not perform well. Does this mean they had not been taught the content? No! The majority of teachers spend a significant number of weeks ‘building up the pieces’ of quadratics. The question is, what sort of tasks were those pupils engaged in during this time? The problem, in my view, is that many pupils still perceive quadratics as a plethora of discrete procedures to be learned. If, instead, pupils could see the topic as an interconnected web of ideas, they would gain a deeper conceptual understanding. Couple this understanding with some fundamental algebra skills and then you might have pupils who are able to engage more meaningfully with routine and nonroutine questions alike. One approach to making connections and to avoid ideas being seen as discrete is, when working through a succession of tasks, to have explicit classroom dialogue about the relationships between the tasks. We could draw a map of the relationships, perhaps in a network diagram, and build this up as we progress through the topic. As teachers, we know what pupils are ‘meant’ to learn from each task, and we understand where these tasks and the ideas therein are positioned in the big picture. We need to make these connections explicit, as the majority of pupils do not make enough of them. However, while drawing a network diagram might be helpful, it is not possible for pupils to fully appreciate these connections simply from being told about them. Pupils need experiences through which they can develop their own understanding and make connections for themselves. As the basis for this, we might use a task such as the following:

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Factorised: y = (x − 1)(x − 3)

In expanded form: y = x2 − 4x + 3

Completed square: y = (x − 2)2 − 1 y-intercept: (0, 3)

Table of values x y −2 15 −1 8 0 3 1 0 2 −1 3 0 4 3 5 8 6 15 Roots: x = 1 and x = 3

Discriminant: b2 − 4ac = 4

Turning point: minimum at (2, −1)

Factorised:

In expanded form: y = x2 − 6x + 9

Completed square: y-intercept:

Table of values x y

Roots:

Discriminant:

Turning point:

Here, pupils are presented with a complete example, demonstrating different algebraic, geometric and tabular representations of a quadratic equation, along with some other key facts about the quadratic such as turning point etc. The idea is for pupils to recognise the body of knowledge around quadratics as more than a set of procedures to be recalled. Initially, it is useful to give pupils some time to read the completed grid individually. Then I ask pupils to work in pairs to cut out the cards and organise them in some way – the layout is entirely up to the pupils and how they see the relationships. I encourage pupils to draw arrows between the cards, to show which ones most directly connect to the others. For instance, there would not be a line between discriminant and y-intercept, but there would be lines joining the y-intercept with the expanded and factorised forms, the table of values and the graph, as it can be clearly seen from each of those. If the teacher leads this task, there is likely to be less cognitive demand placed upon pupils, less scope for 41

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conversation and, as such, less learning: it is essential to allow pupils to explore the information without prompting. Next, I give pupils versions of the grid for different quadratics, with only one or two pieces of information in each grid. They have to complete each grid, including different representations, based upon this starting point. This is not like the exam questions they will be asked to do; rather, the task is about building connections, understanding equivalence of representations and developing an understanding that there are many ways to navigate this topic. For instance, there is no specific form in which a quadratic must be written to establish the turning point. However, there is a representation which makes this more convenient. I usually ask pupils to work together on one or two of these grids, to gain confidence with this less structured task and to gain insight from each other. Then I have pupils complete the remaining grids individually. This task activates prior knowledge and serves as a prompt for dialogue. Pupils are unlikely to find a task like this easy but it nevertheless engages them in sophisticated mathematical activity. Because pupils complete several grids, reflection is built into the task. I have found it useful to provide some grids immediately after quadratics have been introduced for the first time, then space out the others over a few weeks, so pupils internalise the ideas for the long term. Earlier, I outlined how the activity or process is what is valuable, not the end product. If pupils have been able to correctly answer fifty questions by carrying out some procedure, all we can infer is that, at this moment in time, they are able to replicate this procedure. It is often the case that, only one week later, the same pupil is unable to replicate this initial performance. All we can ever do is make inferences about learning using whatever assessment actions or devices we are aware of. Conversely, there are situations where pupils may not perform perfectly, yet make significant gains in learning. The quadratics task is one such example. There is an important place for tasks requiring deep thinking and utilisation of higher order mathematical behaviours. The gains from such tasks might be hard to quantify but still help pupils to develop their conceptual understanding and their range of mathematical actions. In summary, success in ‘drill’ exercises is no more evidence of learning, than failure to complete a richer task is evidence of no learning.

Tasks shape impressions of mathematics Exams and textbooks are sources of tasks. Pupils develop their sense of what it means to ‘do mathematics’ from the classroom activities in which they engage. (Henningsen and Stein, 1997) 42

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2 The role of tasks

It may be the case that a teacher who views mathematics as a collection of procedures to be learned favours the use of ‘drill’ exercises, while a teacher who believes in the power of discovery learning presents initial teaching through inquiry prompts. The experiences of pupils in each of these classrooms is quite different. Haggerty and Pepin suggest that task selection by teachers influences and sometimes determines the degree of pupils’ opportunities to learn (Haggarty and Pepin, 2002). I have argued that pupils need layers of different experiences to learn the various procedures, become comfortable with concepts and develop mathematical behaviours. This pedagogical stance is also important in shaping pupil attitudes to mathematics. A range of tasks and mathematical activity allow pupils to develop a better appreciation of what mathematics is. By having rich tasks which require a range of sophisticated actions beyond merely calculating, pupils begin to learn what it means to ‘do’ mathematics. Textbooks, as collections of tasks, have a role in shaping pupils’ impressions of mathematics. Senk and Thompson state that textbook tasks can be viewed as shapers of the curriculum rather than merely presenting a given curriculum. Textbooks are only ever an interpretation of the curriculum by an author. They are a collection of tasks which, if completed, should result in some learning. Textbooks are shaped by the beliefs of the author and the motivations of the publisher. If textbooks are to be a key resource in classrooms, it is vitally important that teachers do not fall into the trap of thinking the textbook is the curriculum. Coverage of the syllabus is rarely perfect, even in the best texts. A greater problem is that the range of exercises in textbooks, particularly in the UK, tends to be predominantly procedural. This is not a balanced mathematical diet for pupils. Nevertheless, many teachers hold on to textbooks as the primary, and in some cases only, resource (Senk and Thompson, 2003). That some pupils experience a limited range of tasks is perhaps due to the fact that we live in a highly accountable exam-driven culture. Burkhardt and Swan explain that ‘the tasks presented by high stakes examinations and textbooks largely determine the types of task that are used within classrooms’ (Burkhardt and Swan, 2013). It is often the case that being able to do questions which resemble past examination questions is viewed as the ‘goal state’. This can lead to an emphasis on procedures at the expense of concepts and development of other mathematical habits of mind. If the exam system does not value this other learning (which is essential in learning mathematics, as opposed to learning how to pass exams) then it is little wonder that it is often neglected. Teaching pupils to pass exams is a real problem. The popular booklet Nix the Tricks (Cardone, 2015) lists a whole range of ‘tricks’ which pupils are sometimes taught without any understanding – purely with a focus on passing exams. While these tricks may help pupils to pass the current level, they are seldom a sound basis 43

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for further study and often create problems for future learning. The inclusion of questions in exams which test conceptual understanding or require problem solving can encourage teachers to ensure pupils are mathematically proficient. While, as individuals, we may not have the power to change assessments at a national level, we can certainly influence the design of internal assessments in our own schools. I offer my mantra: ‘if you teach the mathematics deeply and richly, the exams take care of themselves’.

Conclusion We have established that tasks are the catalyst for mathematical activity and the means by which learning can occur. We have explored the necessity for layers of experience built up over time and for a focus on higher-order mathematical actions. A prevalent theme in this chapter, and throughout this book is that telling pupils things is often necessary, but rarely sufficient for pupils to learn. Even when pupils are shown or told about a structure, picture or relationship, they must internalise it for themselves. Just because a pupil has been told something, it does not follow that they appreciate what has been said or can reconstruct it for themselves. This is where tasks, and the resultant activity, are so important. They, in conjunction with dialogue, help to bridge the gap between topics and learning. Finally, I discussed the role of tasks in determining pupils’ perceptions of the subject. I close this chapter with the following quote from Back et al.: ‘task design is therefore meta-mathematics in the sense that it influences what is learnt, and how pupils understand the nature of mathematics’ (Back et al., 2012).

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3 Curriculum Tony Gardiner At the outset of writing this book, one person I was determined to talk to was Tony Gardiner. Tony is a truly unique voice in mathematics education. As well as being a former chair of the Mathematics Association, he founded the United Kingdom Mathematics Trust, an organisation which sets mathematical challenge competitions for school pupils. Tony has also written countless books of lovely mathematical tasks. So, when I contacted Tony, this great task writer, I was surprised, somewhat, by his response. I believe there are two sides to this issue. First of all, we’ve got to look at the mathematics itself, because there’s truth in the mathematics. The mathematics is the mathematics. The other side of this is that we actually need to look at the pedagogy and didactics, the actual mechanism of how we teach and the models that we know we can build up over time. We need to address the question of how, supposing this task or activity has value, has it delivered any long-term benefit? My observation over many years is that the majority of tasks to which I have been subjected deliver no long-term benefits. A smaller number of tasks, I have emerged thinking “that was an hour and a half well spent”. In that sense, the task has a certain positive something. However, I still don’t see how these tasks deliver long term benefits. Further, the people presenting tasks don’t explain how the tasks will deliver long term benefits. I compare it to the difference between going for a nice meal and dealing with obesity. Tackling obesity, promoting a decent diet and developing a healthy body, is different from going for a nice meal. A nice meal might be an enjoyable way to pass an hour and a half, but it isn’t making people healthier. There’s a complete difference between a nice meal and healthy eating. I don’t watch any television 45

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cooking programmes because it seems to me there’s something funny about them. I mean they are broadcast while, at the same time, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and everything else is running rampant. So clearly, whatever they are addressing, it doesn’t seem to be helping us think more sensibly about good eating. A good teacher is not a star, they are not performers. Some might be, but 90% of teachers won’t be. They’ll just be thoughtful, ordinary teachers, trying to do their best. I’m privileged to interact with a primary programme called Maths No Problem. I suggest that maths teachers would enjoy the books if they worked through them from 1A to 6B. You would see somebody had thoughtfully built something for almost all kids. It’s not exciting, though I get excited looking at it because I’m interested not in nice meals, but in healthy eating. I see, in these books, somebody carefully avoiding doing what happens in a lot of English classrooms. They’re avoiding focusing on a specific thing because now would be a bad time. And they focus slowly – boringly slowly – on all sorts of other little things. But I get excited because I know this is where things can improve for ordinary people. However, it isn’t exciting on the surface, it wouldn’t excite the inspectorate. It’s not a collection of tasks, it’s a map. It’s a map with a colour scheme and a structure. Instead of giving snapshots of interesting cases to visit, which aren’t linked together, the teacher is given a map which somebody has carefully designed. Think of a map that Columbus or Vasco da Gama or Captain Cook or whomever had to work with. They were crummy. And that’s why lots of explorers disappeared and we never heard of them again. Having a map that somebody has thought out carefully, which you can trust, allows you to explore a city or a landscape in a completely new way and to get to know it. Amazing things are possible when you learn to read an Ordnance Survey Map and use it to go out into places you didn’t know. This is what the teacher’s doing all the time. When teachers are in the first 10 years of their career and they really are raw, they don’t fully understand how their subject hangs together or why we should teach a certain idea before some other. To an extent, at that early career stage, people are obliged to follow the scheme of work, without really knowing the way things should be arranged. Some schemes of work aren’t good enough, which is what my book Teaching Mathematics at Secondary Level is about. The National Curriculum in England has 46

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much of this arrangement of ideas wrong. It groups ideas wrongly and ignores connections. The National Curriculum isn’t a map. It’s open to interpretation. At the early career stage, a teacher can’t know if an interpretation is sensible. This is why a map is necessary. It’s telling you the way that ideas are built up over time. Of course, there are some choices one can make as to whether one does this before that, and those can vary. With a map, what you’re getting is not dogma or a straitjacket, it is a carefully thought out route. I think the UK maths education community is guilty for having essentially concealed the map. So that’s where I start from on why I have trouble with tasks. The tasks may be beautiful, just like a meal may be beautiful, but that’s not the problem. The problem is how you link whatever you do to the long term. Task design looks sensible because you know that even if you were to draw a map, you would have to set some exercises. You’d need to have the anchor task upfront. It feels like it’s connected to the long-term challenge. But my observation is that it never is, it’s separate. Malcolm Swan was absolutely excellent in embedding the tasks that he imagined/ conceived/thought up or had presented to him into a kind of, I want to say a classroom setting or context. That would make wonderful sense if one were doing this chapter after chapter or square after square on a map in building up a progression – but that doesn’t happen. As such, I don’t see any alternatives to the textbook. Tasks encourage people to go and print out another bloody sheet from the web. I don’t know any settings in which that works at scale. I can imagine it working in the odd classroom with the odd teacher but…I’m stuck.” I said in the introduction to this book that there would be nuance, that my stance would be somewhere in the complex middle ground. I had never intended to write a chapter on curriculum, since this is a book about tasks. However, after hearing Tony’s words, I decided that a chapter exploring the mathematics curriculum would be an important addition. While I agree with much of what Tony says, I believe tasks have a significant role to play. They can be used to create the ‘healthy diet’ of activity required in mathematics learning and to provide a roadmap for teachers in conjunction with curriculum documentation. In this chapter we will explore: • the factors influencing the implementation of the curriculum in classrooms • the role of textbooks 47

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• a discussion of how tasks are used to exemplify two very different curricula • ways to improve the system by changing examination tasks.

The factors influencing the implementation of the curriculum in classrooms The word ‘curriculum’ has multiple meanings, but it is primarily used to refer to overarching frameworks that specify what should be taught. In some countries the curriculum means the resources teachers use when planning learning. In some cases, the textbook is essentially the curriculum. Remillard and Heck propose a useful model for understanding the complex interactions between curriculum, teachers, instructional materials and learning.

Factors that influence the OFFICIAL CURRICULUM

OFFICIAL Designated curriculum

Factors that influence the TEACHER INTENDED CURRICULUM

Selected Adopted, ted Incorpora

Instructional materials OPERATIONAL

Teacher-intended curriculum

Curricular aims and objectives Content of consequential assessments

Factors that influence INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Enacted curriculum

Factors that influence the ENACTED CURRICULUM

Student outcomes

Factors that influence STUDENT OUTCOMES

(Remillard and Heck, 2014) As this diagram shows, a curriculum model is usually based on some broad aims and objectives. These might be high level, and somewhat applicable to all subjects, not just mathematics . In Scotland, for example, the curriculum aims are such that all pupils become: • • • •

successful learners confident individuals responsible citizens effective contributors.

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For mathematics, there are more precise aims, written from a pupil perspective. My learning in mathematics enables me to: • develop a secure understanding of the concepts, principles and processes of mathematics and apply these in different contexts, including the world of work • engage with more abstract mathematical concepts and develop important new kinds of thinking • understand the application of mathematics, its impact on our society past and present, and its potential for the future • develop essential numeracy skills which will allow me to participate fully in society • establish firm foundations for further specialist learning • understand that successful independent living requires financial awareness, effective money management, using schedules and other related skills • interpret numerical information appropriately and use it to draw conclusions, assess risk, and make reasoned evaluations and informed decisions • apply skills and understanding creatively and logically to solve problems, within a variety of contexts • appreciate how the imaginative and effective use of technologies can enhance the development of skills and concepts. (Scottish Government, 2016 [1]) These overarching aims and objectives may underpin the political narrative of education systems but are of little practical use to subject teachers. Many teachers, in my experience, desire a curriculum which suggests what they are to teach and provides some guidance as to how they might do this. The visual model above includes the designated curriculum. This is a list of the content to be taught and may include some specificity on the design of teaching. While the designated curriculum varies little between countries, what varies a lot is how it is presented, the amount of detail, and the pedagogical and assessment guidance. It can be anything from a sparse list of aims and experiences to a detailed specification including exemplar tasks. Some countries rely primarily on curricular aims and objectives and assessments to communicate the official curriculum, while the specifics of instruction are left to the individual school or teacher. In other countries, the designated curriculum is simply an adopted mathematics textbook from a commercial publisher. In highly-centralised countries such as South Korea, 49

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the education ministry oversees the design of instructional materials and officially sanctions the textbooks which may be used in schools. In many school districts in the US, the designated curriculum consists of a host of assembled packages of materials, instructional resources, and structuring guidelines designed to shape the content, pacing, and often the processes and tools of mathematics instruction (Remillard and Heck, 2014). A major shaper of curriculum is assessment. Cuban talks about the idea of the tested curriculum. Final examinations cannot assess every curricular objective and the ones which are assessed can be perceived, by some, to be those which are truly valuable (Cuban, 1993). In the US, for example, a number of states include problem-solving and communication skills in their curricular objectives, but do not assess these skills in state tests. Whether intended or not, the resulting message is that such competencies are less necessary than those tested. Ruthven captured this idea nicely, saying, ‘what you test is what you get’ (Ruthven, 1994). As teachers draw on the designated curriculum along with other resources to plan for teaching, they create the teacher-intended curriculum. This is made up of the interpretations of curriculum documents and decisions based on teachers’ own values, beliefs and goals for learning. The teacher-intended curriculum is also influenced by teachers’ interpretations of assessment requirements. The enacted curriculum is ‘the interactions between teachers and pupils around the tasks of each lesson’ and in subsequent lessons. The enacted curriculum cannot be scripted because the enactment itself requires teachers to respond in the moment to the events in the lesson (Remillard and Taton, 2013). No matter the intended curriculum of the teacher, it is the pedagogical choices and interactions with pupils that result in the enacted curriculum. Pupil learning is primarily shaped by the enacted curriculum, with instructional materials commonly playing a prominent role as a source of tasks, worked examples, representations and explanations, as well as expectations for what pupils’ work should look like. In the UK, teachers often create schemes of work which interpret the curriculum and textbooks. This sort of document has more texture and detail and is designed for the local context, with particular cohorts of pupils in mind. This is the document that can come to life most readily, as it has been put together by teachers for teachers. Schemes of work regularly include many tasks and/or task sequences. When I spoke to Tom Francome, he recalled how in his department he had a ‘canon of tasks’, which he felt all pupils should experience during their schooling, such is their value. It is clear that tasks, whether in designated curriculum documentation, in state-sanctioned textbooks, in formal examinations or in schemes of work, have a key part to play in the implementation of the curriculum in schools. 50

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The role of textbooks Mathematics is a subject that has long been associated with textbooks. The way in which textbooks can be used is varied. In some countries, such as South Korea and Japan, there are officially-sanctioned texts which clearly communicate what is to be taught and what models, representations and tasks should be used. There have been efforts to create textbooks or collections of tasks which are ‘teacher-proof’ but Komoski found significant mismatches between the contents of teachers’ guides and classroom practice (Komoski, 1979). Teachers do not perform a script written by someone else! Komoski is critical of commercial materials stating that ‘if instructional materials continue to be developed in order to sell rather than on their ability to facilitate teaching and learning, education will suffer’ (Komoski, 1985). Even with a good textbook in hand, teachers need training and support to use the textbook well. Teachers’ notes are not necessarily enough. There is a complex relationship between pedagogy, curriculum, tasks and pupil learning. From experience, I know how uninviting a lengthy set of teacher’s notes in accompaniment to a task or task sequence can be for a busy teacher. In attempts to bring innovative, progressive curriculum materials into schools, Stephens found that teachers transformed the intended curriculum, imposing a rigid and narrow portrait of mathematics. Most teachers’ instructional patterns focused on group management rather than mathematics. The materials alone did not have the desired outcome. Teachers have varying beliefs, levels of experience, pedagogical flexibility and content knowledge, which underpins their daily practice, making it unlikely that any new resource, alone, can transform pupil learning (Stephens and Romberg, 1982). Where state-approved textbooks are the basis of curriculum, then certain shared professional knowledge can become common place. For instance, in Japan it is most common to teach the area of rectangles, then parallelograms before triangles. This is different to the typical UK ordering but has come about as a result of the shared practice and experience which informs these centralised materials. Tom Francome suggested that, despite the best efforts of authors, the level of thought behind textbooks in the UK is often less than in countries such as Japan. Tom suggests that in a UK textbook you cannot just work from page 1 to page 300 and see everything pan out. This is likely because any textbook is simply an interpretation of the curriculum. In Japan, textbooks are entwined with the curriculum to such an extent that they are the curriculum: the textbooks are developed iteratively in line with the five-year cycle of curriculum refinement. Often what happens in the UK is that a new curriculum is launched, then people run around trying to get books published. In contrast, in Japan, publishers work to achieve approval of their textbooks before the 51

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curriculum change is implemented. This means that when the curriculum changes occur, comprehensive textbooks are immediately available. Japan also differs from the UK in that there is stability in the curriculum. There has been an ongoing, gradual refinement of the curriculum, informed by lesson study, for many years. The wholesale changes we see in the nations of the UK simply do not happen in Japan (Takahashi, 2016). For teachers using textbooks, Tom suggest that we should be critical consumers. As a teacher you have to ask, ‘what is the purpose?’ To decide if a task is good or bad, you need to assess how it aligns with the purpose of the lesson. Many UK textbooks focus on procedural fluency rather than conceptual understanding of problem solving. However, even for technical fluency, the exercises might not meet the purpose. Sometimes there is too much or too little variety, for instance. It is not uncommon to see teachers pasting together exercises from various textbooks, to create something which ‘does the job’ for their pupils. One potential advantage of a textbook compared with a worksheet is that, typically, a team has developed the textbook together and there is a narrative through a range of tasks. Textbooks can also give you an idea of what people think a certain topic is all about; they can shape how we might see mathematics. There is a place for high-quality textbooks, even if only to communicate some well-tested tasks and learning activities to teachers. This is not to suggest that textbooks alone are enough, but to acknowledge that they can be a good basis from which to build. They should: • Encompass the proper progression of learning, based on the best research. • Have a variety of quality tasks to help develop rounded mathematicians. • Make use of effective representations (algebra tiles, for instance) and forward-facing methodologies such as the balance model for solving equations, instead of ‘change side, change sign’ etc. The quality of textbooks is especially important for novice teachers. A good textbook allows them to stand on the shoulders of those who have gone before, using some of that accumulated professional knowledge. Tom Francome raised two more interesting points about textbooks. First, a bit of advice. He suggests an interesting question to ask pupils when using a textbook is, ‘why do you think the textbook writer chose these questions, in this order?’ I suggest it is pertinent for us, as teachers, to consider this too. The next point was an observation. Hardly any textbooks are set up for spaced practice and interleaving. Given the recent prominence of cognitive science, it is surprising that these ideas are not more utilised in textbook design. 52

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Hodgen and Wiliam, in their seminal paper Mathematics inside the black box, suggest that all textbooks can be used as a starting point for formative teaching. For example, pupils could be asked to identify four questions, two which they consider easy and two which they consider difficult. They could then construct model answers – working individually on the ‘easy’ questions and with a partner on the ‘difficult’ ones. Pupils might then be asked: • What is similar ... what is different about the easy and hard questions? • Have you changed your views on which are easy and which are hard questions? • How could you make that question easier/harder? • What advice would you give on how to solve a hard problem? It is suggested that at the end of a lesson sequence, pupils could be asked to produce an alternative to the textbook with explanations and problems, providing advice and guidance to others. Doing this individually and then progressing to pairs or groups would provide an opportunity for pupils first to find out what they know, then to compare this with the ideas of others (Hodgen and Wiliam, 2006).

Tasks used to exemplify learning: South Korea and Scotland A country with impressive mathematics attainment is South Korea, which has maintained a high placing on PISA rankings during a period when Scotland has been on a steady decline. There are clear cultural differences between South Korea and Scotland. However, there is much to contemplate when one examines the ways in which curricula are communicated in each country. I chose these two countries as there is a clear difference in approach. Jeoung Suk Pang of the Korea National University of Education described important aspects of curriculum reform: • • • •

objectives (why to teach/learn) content (what to teach/learn) progression (when to teach/learn) instruction (how to teach/learn).

The Korean curriculum is based on the idea of learning trajectories; although there is no explicit reference to this American construct in Korea, the principles clearly appear (Ferreras, Kessel and Kim, 2015). 53

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Martin Simon (1995) describes learning trajectories as having three components: 1. A set of mathematical goals. 2. A clearly marked developmental path. 3. A coherent set of instructional tasks or activities. Korean teachers are required to do demonstration lessons where they show understanding of both horizontal and vertical trajectories. The beginning of the teachers’ manual gives vertical trajectories for all six grades and prior knowledge at the beginning of each unit, and teachers do the ‘homework’ of reading the descriptions in this manual. They have the belief that they can only teach well if they know what children learned previously, what they have to learn in this lesson and what they have to learn in future lessons. Kyong Mi Choi discusses how textbook tasks in South Korea are developed by teams of mathematicians, mathematics educators and mathematics teachers to ensure mathematical correctness, and to consider how learners understand mathematics and possible misconceptions. These tasks have five core elements – intuitive exploration, explanation, examples, practice, and extension – and there is a richness to the pedagogy. To promote intuitive exploration of ideas, tasks borrow concepts from everyday life, ask pupils to fill in a missing piece of reasoning, or use mathematical knowledge from earlier grades (Ferreras, Kessel and Kim, 2015). Tasks can be used to illustrate the key mathematical ideas to be conveyed. However, no single task can convey the entirety of an idea. A successive layering of experiences is necessary for that. There is a danger that if the curriculum is defined entirely in terms of procedural tasks, the key understandings for teaching will be unclear to both teacher and pupils. For instance, the topic of fractions can be considered in terms of procedures (adding fractions, finding fractions of an amount, creating equivalent fractions, etc.) and this topic is often presented in textbooks and in curriculum documents in these terms. However, considering fractions as these distinct procedures can obscure the deeper conceptual progression. The diagram below shows the five subconstructs of fractions and the relationships between them. When running professional development workshops across Scotland, a question I regularly ask teachers is: ‘what do we mean by a fraction?’. Particularly among teachers at primary level, the majority reply is ‘part-whole’. I don’t think this is because teachers have a lack of understanding of the other meanings of fractions. Instead, I believe that because teachers work with curriculum documents and textbooks which take a predominantly procedural perspective, these deep relationships are 54

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not at the forefront of their thinking when planning learning and teaching. The absence of a clear learning trajectory means it becomes much more difficult to develop coherence between mathematics lessons and across years of schooling. The diagram is not a learning trajectory or a curriculum map in itself; it does not show all of the relationships. However, it spells out the required meaning of fraction to enable pupils to fully appreciate specific procedures. For instance, pupils need a sense of fractions both as part of a whole and as an operator to make sense of multiplication.

Part-Whole / Partitioning

Ratio

Operator

Quotient

Measure

Equivalence

Multiplication

Problem-solving

Addition

(Silver, Behr, Post and Lesh, 1983) It seems clear that this should be part of the pedagogical content knowledge for teachers of mathematics at school level. However, in my experience, most teachers tend to talk in terms of actions associated with fractions rather than these wider meanings. This need not cause a problem, if there are clear learning trajectories. If these subconstructs have been considered by the curriculum writers and textbook authors then fractions can be taught at the appropriate developmental stage through correct sequencing of instruction and tasks, even if the teacher does not entirely appreciate the reasons for this order. Tasks can play a powerful role in exemplifying the curriculum. Let’s consider the different curricula in Scotland and South Korea regarding the multiplication of fractions. In Scotland, the documents Experiences and outcomes and Curriculum for excellence benchmarks (Scottish Government, 2016 [1], [2]) define the mathematics to be taught. I have chosen the three benchmark statements that most closely relate to multiplication of fractions and the development of that knowledge.

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• First Level: Calculates simple fractions of a quantity and uses this knowledge to solve problems in everyday contexts, for example, find ³∕₅ of 60. • Second Level: Uses knowledge of fractions, decimal fractions and percentages to carry out calculations with or without a calculator. • Third Level: Applies addition, subtraction and multiplication skills to solve problems involving fractions and mixed numbers. There is also one exemplar task. It is not clear to the teacher how these statements relate to the subsequent or preceding benchmarks, related to this idea. There is little in the exemplar task to illuminate the sort of mathematical activity that pupils might embark on. Scotland also produced a document called the National Numeracy and Mathematics Progression Framework. In this document, we find the statement: Relationship between fractions, multiplication and division: There is a direct link between finding a fraction of an object or a quantity and multiplication and division. (Scottish Government, 2018) For a novice teacher or a teacher with weaker content knowledge this is quite inadequate. This is exacerbated by the variable quality of the available commercially-produced textbooks. This is not to say there are no good tasks in Scottish textbooks – there are, and there are some good sequences of tasks too. However, on a system level, there is a lack of cohesion such that the sequence of instruction, mathematical experiences and the tasks encountered is frequently not fit for purpose. The stronger UK texts – such as Inspire Maths or Maths No Problem – tend not to align well with the Scottish curriculum. One may question if this is a problem with the marketing of the books, or a reflection of weaknesses in the Scottish curriculum. Comparing this with South Korea, fraction multiplication is brought together explicitly at the fifth grade. In the excerpt below, there are specific mathematical goals and some exemplar instructional tasks for teachers. The connections and depth of thinking required are much clearer. Understanding of multiplication of fractions is to be considered in three ways: 1. Repeated addition. 2. As an operator. 3. As a product of factors.

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Having all three meanings brought together and contrasted helps teachers to more clearly understand the nuance of the conceptual development underpinning this learning. The Korean teachers’ manuals accompanying the textbooks explain why a particular task is in a particular place and identify situations that could lead pupils to misunderstandings, suggesting the actions teachers can take in these situations. The textbooks are designed with care and expertise. Different representations are used in accordance with the three different meanings of fraction multiplication. 1. Repeated addition: area model. 2. Multiplication as operator: measurement and set model. 3. Taking a part of a part of a whole: area model. To encourage use of various computational strategies, textbooks provide various methods for calculation, ask pupils to decide which methods are more efficient, provide ways of making calculations easier (e.g. cancelling before multiplying) and emphasise the use of the distributive property. Typical Scottish textbooks, in stark contrast, provide only one method for reduction of complexity (or none at all), whereas Korean mathematics textbooks provide at least three reduction methods. Developmental Path (Mathematical Goals)

Instructional Tasks

1. To understand (whole number x proper fraction) and (whole number x mixed number) calculate in multiple ways.

3 There are five pizzas of which of each pizza 8 remain. How much pizza is there in total?

2. To understand (proper fraction x whole number) with manipulative; formulate algorithm and use it proficiently. To understand that if a multiplier is smaller than 1, then the product is smaller than the multiplicand.

12 m of wire was bought to make a wire sculptured animal with clay. If ¾ of the wire is used, how many m of the wire is used?

3. To understand (proper fraction x mixed number) with manipulative; calculate with two methods and compare two methods.

3 12 m of wire was bought to make a wire 4 3 sculptured animal with clay. If of the wire is 2 used, how many m of the wire is used?

(Ferreras, Kessel and Kim, 2015) The instructional tasks help to define the intentions of curriculum writers. The tasks in textbooks further help to bridge the gap between the designated curriculum and what is actually enacted in classrooms. 57

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Korean teachers are used to this lesson structure: • introduce the idea of the lesson • develop ideas • close the lesson. The textbook structure uses this format because teachers use it (Ferreras, Kessel and Kim, 2015). The learning activities make sense to teachers, because they relate to the patterns teachers already use. Different textbooks may take different approaches, but each lesson has a clear format: approach ideas, have pupils practise, then wrap up. Hugh Burkhardt argued that to specify a curriculum relatively unambiguously, you need three independent elements: • the tools in the toolkit of mathematical concepts and skills • the performance targets, as exemplified by task types • the pattern of classroom learning activities. Learning activities

Implemented curriculum

Task types

Concepts and skills

(Burkhardt, 1990) This approach helps to communicate the curriculum more clearly. It also helps to avoid undesirable fragmentation of ideas. The Korean model of clearly-defined concepts and skills in the curriculum, exemplar task types, and textbooks and learning materials which correlate with typical teaching patterns, helps to ensure the enacted curriculum is coherent. As such, while there is a danger of the curriculum becoming a set of procedures, communicating it clearly in this way helps teachers to plan for joined up thinking: tasks bring the curriculum ideas to life and the sequencing of tasks in the curriculum documentation helps to exemplify the progression of ideas in an accessible 58

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form. In contrast, the Scottish model seems destined to result in a fragmented, incoherent experience for both teachers and pupils.

Improving the system by changing examination tasks Most examinations include some element of problem solving but these questions are frequently beyond the grasp of many pupils. I conjecture that this is, partially, a result of teaching that focuses on a variety of procedures designed to show learners how to do standard exam questions, rather than conveying the underlying principles. To learn these underlying principles, pupils may have to engage in tasks that do not look like the final assessment questions. As discussed above, ‘what you test is what you get’. Final assessments convey what is valued and subsequently drive classroom activity. Swan and Burkhardt (2012) suggest that assessments should reflect the curriculum in a balanced way. ‘Assessment should be based on a balanced set of tasks that, together, provide pupils with opportunities to show all types of performance that the curriculum goals set out or imply.’ The sorts of assessment we use in the UK school systems do not capture all of the curriculum goals. Focus is on the statistical properties of the test and the ‘fairness’, not on what is assessed. Policy makers choose simple tests because they are cheaper and, if pressed, argue that the results correlate with more valid but elaborate assessments. Final assessments tend to test each concept and skill separately with a short question that has no other cognitive load (for example complexity, long chain of reasoning) that would increase difficulty. Curriculum content is often defined in this way. The problem with this approach to final assessment is that, while success in these types of short task may be a stepping stone, it is by no means an end in itself. Burkhardt argues that a focus which is too much on atomised skills is, in fact, detrimental to pupil learning and no guarantee of success in situations where more substantial chains of reasoning are required. To be useful in solving substantial problems, from the real world or within mathematics, a technique needs multiple connections in the pupil’s mind – to other math concepts and to diverse problem contexts within and outside mathematics. These connections are built over time. (Burkhardt, 2009). If curriculum aims and objectives – such as developing strategic problem solvers – do not correlate with assessment, there is the possibility that the enacted curriculum will look quite different to what might have been imagined by the policy makers. I asked Hugh Burkhardt how system wide improvements might be made in the nations of the UK. 59

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A central problem is that we know how to enable typical teachers to teach much better mathematics, much more effectively, to all pupils. However, nobody knows how to move a system to do that! It appears to be harder in the Anglo systems, where there is a tradition of letting the market provide the materials etc. A fundamental problem is addressing the question, ‘how big of a step forward do we take?’. If we try to take a big step, then very few will follow. If we take a small step, then why even bother? This is a pertinent point. There have been many attempts to import curricula and materials from southeast Asia but it is not as simple as lifting the materials from one country and placing them in another. Those countries have teachers who have developed their knowledge through those curricula and textbooks. The utilisation of the texts, in the UK, would inevitably be inferior. This is not because UK teachers are worse but because they haven’t been trained to use these materials, just as Tony Gardiner described with the Maths No Problem books earlier. Hugh Burkhardt describes a model that has worked in the UK previously. We have developed modules, which take a number of days of teaching, to address particular things which are missing. We had a very successful realisation of it in the 1980s, called testing strategic skills. I was on the maths and research committee of the JMB [exam board]. I convinced the maths committee that the exam assessed only two or three of the eight “knowledges and abilities” which were outlined in the syllabus. We embarked upon a gradual process of change where each year, one new type of task would be added to the exam. That was around 5% of the curriculum. At the Shell Centre, we created teaching materials for around three weeks, which was the appropriate amount of time, and removed three weeks’ worth of existing material from the syllabus. We provided the boxes: “Problems with patterns and numbers” and “The language of functions and graphs”. Each box contained the following: • five examples of the types of task • the three weeks of teaching material (carefully developed through three rounds of trialling) • some professional development materials. The examples were non-routine, and, in the notes, we explained that the tasks in the exam would differ from the examples to about the 60

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same extent as the examples differed from each other. The key feature of this model is a digestible rate of change – profound change but on a small scale. Politicians treat education in a way that they would never treat medicine: “we are going to fix it”. They always find money to support a new curriculum.’ Here is an example task and the curricular aims and objectives: Skeleton Tower from ‘Problems with Patterns and Numbers’ Knowledge and abilities to be tested The following list is intended to provide a general indication of the knowledge and abilities which the examination will be designed to test. Knowledge of mathematical notation, terminology, conventions and units. The language and notation of sets together with the ideas of a mapping and a function are basic to the syllabus. The ability to understand information presented in verbal, graphical or tabular form, and to translate such information into mathematical form. The ability to recognise the mathematical methods which are suitable for the solution of the problem under consideration. The ability to apply mathematical methods and techniques. The ability to manipulate mathematical expressions. The ability to make logical deductions. The ability to select and apply appropriate techniques to problems in unfamiliar or novel situations. The ability to interpret mathematical results. Look at this diagram and answer the questions. 1. How many cubes are needed to build this tower? 2. How many cubes are needed to build a tower like this, but 12 cubes high? 3. Explain how you worked out your answer to part 2. 4. How would you calculate the number of cubes needed for a tower n cubes high?

(Shell Centre, 1984) One tactical design feature is worth noting. Each of these units demanded significant changes from the normal teaching style of most teachers. Nonroutine problem solving is destroyed if the teacher breaks up the problem into steps or guides the pupil through the mathematics – yet these are common teacher actions when pupils are having difficulty. These lessons are built around classroom discussion in which pupils explain and discuss each other’s reasoning, not expecting answers from the teacher. Hugh and his colleagues 61

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were aware that many teachers would not read extensive notes, so decided the essential style changes should be summarised as a few key points on one page – the inside-back-cover of the teachers’ guide. These materials had significant impact. The modules were bought by most of the schools that used this examination. The pupil responses to the tasks in the actual examination showed a reasonable range of performance. The pupils acquired important new skills and the board’s examination reflected more of its stated goals. There is a lesson in strategic design here. In contrast to attempts to raise standards in familiar areas of performance (adding fractions, using percentages, etc.), the introduction of important new areas, previously missing in examinations, almost guarantees substantial success if done well. Predictably – and sadly – this work was not carried on in the long term due to restructuring of exam boards. While politicians focus on the benefits of reorganisation in education, they rarely focus on the costs. However, it is clear from this example that well-aligned changes in the system’s high-stakes assessment, when achievable, can be a powerful lever for increasing impact.

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4 Pedagogy Teachers who want quick answers, won’t find those answers. Teachers need to work on becoming the teacher that they want to become… The pupils’ job is to learn the mathematics and the teachers’ job is to learn the pupils. Laurinda Brown For teachers, everything we think about has to be rooted in the reality of the classroom. All too often, ideas about how to teach that come from ‘top down’ are unsuccessful in their implementation. There is no holy grail of teaching, there is simply what people are able to do, based on their past experiences. Pedagogy is deeply individual: it is a result of our experiences, our understanding of mathematics and our beliefs around how to teach it. It might be influenced by the external examinations which hold the system to account. At its core, pedagogy is rooted in the relationships we make with the pupils in our classes. We may employ different pedagogies with different groups. Even with the same group, our approach might change depending on the circumstances. At the outset, it is important for me to say that I believe the argument centred on the false dichotomy of traditional versus progressive teaching is unproductive. It is deeply polarising and does not help any of us to improve. There are positives to be found in the practice and thinking of all teachers – I’ve yet to meet a teacher who hasn’t thought about something in a way that has influenced me. We should discuss learning and teaching to listen and gain insight rather than to assert our own views. Pedagogy can be thought of as the actions and decisions of the teacher. Schoenfeld (2014) states that ‘people’s moment-by-moment decision making in teaching, in medicine, in fact, in all knowledge-rich domains can be modelled as a function of their: • resources: especially their knowledge but also the tools at their disposal • orientations: a generalisation of beliefs, including values and preferences and • goals: which are often chosen on the basis of orientations and available resources.’ 63

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This relates to the selection and use of tasks, which in turn is rooted in the pedagogical choices of the teacher. The sorts of task teachers choose to deploy, and the mileage a teacher may get from a task, are a function of his or her own beliefs about classroom practice and the pedagogical actions in their repertoire. In this chapter, I intend to offer a few established models of thinking about mathematics pedagogy which support the perspectives that underpin the remainder of this book. We begin this chapter by considering some perspectives on learning from across the last century.

Associationism Thorndike (1905) proposed a learning theory based on mental ‘bonds’ or associations between sets of stimuli and the responses to them. For instance, ‘five plus five’ as a stimulus, with ‘ten’ as the response. According to this theory, bonds become stronger as a result of frequent use, and weaker as a result of infrequent use. This way of thinking was manifested in the classroom with lots of ‘drill’ exercises. Associationism was a fairly straightforward model, which resulted in straightforward pedagogy.

Gestaltism The perspective of the Gestaltists was much more sophisticated. They believed that complex mental structures needed to be recognised during planning of teaching. Wertheimer was a critic of rote learning and the associated drill exercises used in schools. While those drill exercises resulted in pupils who could master certain procedures, the knowledge acquired in this way was likely to be superficial and unlikely to be freely applicable to unfamiliar situations. Wertheimer used this calculation to argue his point: 857 + 857 + 857 + 857 + 857 5 He pointed out that many pupils would laboriously add the terms in the numerator before dividing by five, rather than using the structure: the pupils could be fluent with the procedures, but quite lacking in appreciation of number sense. He remarked of one pupil that ‘the child could add, subtract, divide and multiply with the best of them. The only problem was that the child never knew which method to use.’ (Wertheimer, 1959)

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Behaviourism The behaviourists such as B. F. Skinner took a similar but more extreme stance to the associationists. Skinner argued that learning could be defined solely in terms of observable behaviours and was best thought of as the result of an individual’s interactions with the environment (Skinner, 1958). Skinner and colleagues such as Terrace showed that ‘errorless learning’ was possible through shaping of behaviour by small successive approximations (Terrace, 1963). The focus of a behaviourist approach to teaching is on careful sequencing and small steps. Robert Gagné described ‘programmed instruction’, which has the underpinning idea that the right sequence of experiences, repeated frequently enough, should generate the right learning (Gagné, 1965). The influence of the behaviourist perspective is prominent in the practice of many teachers. ‘The mathematics we teach is assumed to be a fixed body of knowledge, and it is taught under the assumption that learners absorb what has been covered’ (Romberg and Carpenter, 1986). There is an assumption that pupils are blank slates: they are shown a procedure and, since the message doesn’t always get across, they are shown again. If they are struggling, they might be shown different ways to do the procedure. However, all this is based on the assumption that the pupil ‘hasn’t learned it yet’. Behaviourists tend to focus more on the product of the thinking, rather than the process (we discussed the product/process model in the previous chapter).

Constructivism Constructivism, on the other hand, is focused on process rather than product. Perhaps surprisingly for some of those who are newly enthusiastic about cognitive science and its application to education, there is a significant overlap between the thinking in this field and that of the constructivists. The constructivist perspective is that we each build our own framework for making sense of the world, and we then see the world by interpreting it with regard to that framework. These frameworks are known as schemata. A schema describes a pattern of thought or behaviour that organises categories of information and the relationships among them (DiMaggio, 1997). It can also be described as a mental structure of preconceived ideas or a system of organising and perceiving new information. A useful analogy for a schema is a complex web of interconnected ideas. Each node represents a discrete mathematical idea. The number of links and strength of links (indicated in bold) between ideas represent the extent of understanding.

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In teaching, constructivists hold beliefs such as that of Susan Carey: ‘human beings are theory builders; from the beginning we construct explanatory structures that help us find the deeper reality underlying surface chaos’ (Carey, 1985). Possibly the most prominent constructivist was Jean Piaget. In his theory of development, children construct a series of schemata, based on the interactions they experience, to help them understand the world. Schoenfeld describes lesson planning, from this perspective, as being concerned with how pupils will interpret what you show them rather than how much of it they will absorb. He suggests that, ‘with this interpretation model, one has the opportunity to “get inside pupils’ heads” and locate the cause of their difficulties’ (Schoenfeld, 1987). Constructivism in itself is not a theory of how to teach, it is a theory of learning. Various approaches to teaching – such as inquiry learning, problembased learning and investigations – can be traced to constructivist thinking. However, it is possible to have a quite different pedagogical approach and still be a constructivist. My position is influenced most by the constructivist perspective but also acknowledges Vygotsky’s notion of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978) – that is, ‘the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem-solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem-solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers.’ Essentially, this refers to the difference between what a pupil can do without help and what he or she can achieve with guidance and encouragement. Social interaction with others and appropriate task sequences can help pupils to cross through the ZPD. These views have underpinned my own thinking in effective task design and the associated pedagogy. I argue that pupils cannot gain conceptual 66

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understanding simply by being told something. That may work for procedures and facts, but real conceptual understanding is not possible unless pupils have opportunities to interact with the mathematics, to develop awareness of phenomena beyond a superficial level, and to become sensitised to the principles governing these phenomena. Ideally, this should happen in a classroom where there is ample opportunity for discussion. There are times when a focus on the product – correct completion of a procedure – is necessary for mathematics learning. However, this is far from sufficient. This idea, that connections are important to understanding, is a fundamental principle of what follows in subsequent chapters. Making connections is what understanding is about. The mathematics is understood if its mental representation is part of a network of representations. The degree of understanding is determined by the number and strength of its connections. A mathematical idea, procedure or fact is understood if it is linked to existing networks with stronger or more numerous connections. (Hiebert and Carpenter, 1992)

Teaching for Robust Understanding (TRU) Schoenfeld has outlined a framework, based upon significant evidence from research, about powerful mathematics classrooms. The degree to which pupils emerge from the classroom as proficient mathematical thinkers and problem solvers is related to the five dimensions of Powerful Mathematics Classrooms (Schoenfeld, 2013).

The mathematics

In a powerful mathematics classroom, the integrity of the mathematics and the richness of the subject are central to everything. Teachers use mathematics correctly and avoid ‘tricks’. They help pupils to focus on the key ideas and build on pupils’ ideas, using sound reasoning and justification for the mathematical content, to support this dialogue. The classroom activity is set up to enable pupils to become knowledgeable, flexible and resourceful mathematicians. There is a focus on different perspectives, connection-making and mathematical thinking alongside techniques and procedures.

Cognitive demand

There is an appropriate level of cognitive demand, with a variety of opportunities for pupils to grapple with and make sense of mathematical ideas and their use. Pupils are challenged appropriately, with tasks ranging from moderate to 67

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demanding. Productive struggle is pitched at the right level at appropriate times in the instructional sequence. There is a range of tasks from procedural practice to non-routine, multi-step problems, which are previously unseen.

Equitable access to mathematics

Classroom activity is set up for the engagement of all pupils in the room. Classrooms in which a small number of pupils get most of the ‘air time’ are not equitable, no matter how rich the content. All pupils need to be involved in meaningful ways. Not only is it not equitable but the understanding of one or two is often used as a proxy for whole class understanding.

Agency, ownership and identity

Pupils are provided with opportunities to ‘walk the walk’ as mathematicians and to begin to see themselves as such. Mathematics learning is active, not passive. In a productive learning environment, pupils have the opportunity to see themselves as doers of mathematics – to develop a sense of agency – and to act accordingly. The roots of ‘authority’ reside in the word ‘author’. The idea is that pupils create, or author, mathematical ideas and their justifications, thus becoming authorities. These ideas and justifications need to be aired. At the same time, pupils are not free to invent without constraint: they make conjectures, but are then accountable – to the subject itself, to the teacher, and to other pupils. The dialogic structures supported by the teacher can foster or inhibit agency, authority, and accountability.

Formative assessment

A key marker of effective teaching is the extent to which classroom practices elicit pupil thinking and where this thinking is subsequently acted upon. When assessment becomes an integral and ongoing part of the learning process – as opposed to an interruption of classroom activities – pupils’ thinking takes a more central role in determining the direction and shape of learning. A fuller discussion of formative assessment follows. It takes a number of years for teachers to develop each of these dimensions in their classrooms, if they ever manage to do so. As part of the TRU materials, various observation guides are provided. One that I find particularly powerful is shown below; this focuses on seeing a lesson from a pupil’s perspective. I think we should all have this stuck to the wall in our classrooms, so these key ideas remain sharply in focus when we are planning lessons.

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Observe the lesson through a student’s eyes The Mathematics

What’s the big idea in this lesson? How does it connect to what I already know?

Cognitive Demand How long am I given to think, and to make sense of things? What happens when I get stuck? Am I invited to explain things, or just give answers? Equitable Access to Mathematics

Do I get to participate in meaningful mathematical learning? Can I hide or be ignored?

Agency, Ownership Do I get to explain, or present my ideas? Are they built on? and Identity Am I recognized as being capable and able to contribute in meaningful ways? Formative Assessment

Do classroom discussions include my thinking? Does instruction respond to my thinking and help me think more deeply?

(Schoenfeld, 2016)

Formative assessment in detail I’m sure most of us are familiar with conversations similar to the following. ‘How did your class get on with vectors today?’ ‘It seemed to go well, they were fine with it.’ It ‘seemed’ to go well? What could this possibly mean? Does it mean the teacher used a range of formative assessment strategies including mini whiteboards, exit tickets and conversations with individual pupils to inform their judgement? Or does it mean the class were set a task and produced lots of work in silence? Maybe there was a call to ‘put your hand up if you get stuck’, which no child did. How did the pupils know they were doing OK? Were they allowed to discuss their answers? Was a mark scheme available? ‘Seemed to go well’ is simply not good enough. As teachers, we need to be constantly gathering information about our pupils’ learning and then, if required, acting on it. We should never be sitting at our desks distractedly working on the computer while pupils are in the room. There is always some information to be found out or some support for learning that can be given. While pupils are engaged in a task, we should be teaching between the desks. That is, we should be questioning and probing pupils, not just checking answers. We should provide scaffolding and support for pupils who are struggling, or offer ways to stretch those who are not finding the task challenging. Every pupil should be engaged in meaningful learning. Formative assessment is a core component of effective teaching. It is about communication. By employing formative assessment strategies, teachers can get information on pupil performance, ideas and understanding ‘in the moment’; 69

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this can then be used to inform what the teacher says or does next. Formative assessment also gives teachers feedback on the quality of their instruction, so they can refine explanations, sequences of examples or the choice of tasks given. For pupils, formative assessment should provide information on both their thinking and their written work. This information may come in the form of feedback from the teacher or from other pupils. Importantly, all of this feedback – between pupils, from the teacher to pupils and vice versa – has little impact unless it is acted upon. Teachers have the autonomy to decide what to do with the information they receive, but pupils need to have the space for this created for them. It is essential to provide time and opportunities for pupils to reflect and act upon feedback during lessons. Tasks underpin formative assessment. The work pupils do, which is the subject of the formative assessment, is a result of engagement with a task. When we ask pupils to reconsider or to engage in some form of correction, that is a task. When pupils work together to discuss the work they have produced, that is also a task.

Teacher Student performance Effectiveness of instruction

Student Information

Act on the information

Feedback to act upon Hypercorrection effect

Act on the feedback

One of the most important papers of the past 20 years is Mathematics inside the black box: assessment for learning in the mathematics classroom (Hodgen and Wiliam, 2006). In this paper, Hodgen and Wiliam lay out five principles of learning:

Principle 1: Start from where the learner is

This usually involves starting with a question to establish what ideas pupils already have. We need to recognise that pupils have to reconstruct their ideas and that trying to overlay those ideas, without accounting for them, tends to lead to an understanding of mathematics as disconnected and inconsistent. An interesting idea I first heard of from this book’s editor, Mark McCourt, is to start a lesson with the hardest question the pupils will be asked that day. I 70

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extend this by including another question that is representative of the types of question pupils will encounter that day. This provides immediate information about pupil understanding. In some cases, particularly at early secondary level, pupils will be able to successfully complete the representative question. This means the lesson can begin by focusing on the harder standard of question. Even when pupils can’t answer the questions posed, they will have ideas ‘in and around’ the representative question – assuming the curriculum is properly sequenced. This provides a useful starting point for discussion upon which to build the lesson. I do not put prerequisite questions at the start of lessons; instead I use them in preceding lessons. Any small issues that arise can be dealt with in the moment. However, if there are significant issues, I am likely to require a full lesson to prepare pupils for the new learning. Once I have identified any issues, I can plan how to address them in the next lesson: I think it is better to know this in advance so I can create a well-designed lesson and task sequence to remedy these issues. I don’t want to discover major issues with prerequisites on the day when new learning is planned!

Principle 2: Pupils must be active in the process

‘Learning has to be done by them; it cannot be done for them.’ If we use questions as suggested in the first principle for learning, the next consideration is how we act upon these questions. Teachers have to encourage and listen carefully to the range of explanations and ideas put forward by a variety of pupils. We are not listening for the right answer, or for what we want to hear. We are listening to learn what pupils understand. We don’t aim to ‘fix the pupil’ but instead provide opportunities to address inconsistencies and errors, and to reformulate understanding of ideas. We cannot do the thinking for pupils but we are responsible for providing them with tasks and time in which to make sense of what we want them to learn.

Principle 3: Pupils need to talk about their ideas

When people discuss so-called CPA (concrete, pictorial, abstract) approaches, sometimes what is forgotten is the importance of language. ‘Talking the talk is an important part of learning.’ Being able to articulate mathematical ideas in words is a powerful representation in itself. As such, pupils need opportunities for whole-class, pair and group discussion. Of course, managing pupil discussion so it remains on-task can be a challenge. A common strategy is Think-Pair-Share. I sometimes build on this using an approach called snowballing, where individual work leads to paired work and then to group discussion. 71

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For routine exercises I will ask pupils to engage in the task individually, completing a short sequence of questions. After some time, I will ask pupils to pair up and compare their answers. I say, ‘if you both have the same answer then we can assume, for now, that you are correct. If you have different answers, you need to talk about them and look at each other’s work to resolve who is correct. If you can’t agree, put a question mark.’ Next, I ask the pairs to pair up, so pupils are in groups of four. As before, I ask them to compare their answers: they can assume the work is correct if all four of them have the same answer, and they can discuss issues and examine their working if one or two of them have something different. If, at this point, there is a stand-off where pupils can’t reach a resolution, they can ask me to join the discussion. I might confirm who is correct, then ask probing questions such as: ‘Does it work if we change this?’, ‘Why can’t this (other) solution be correct?’, ‘What would the graph look like?’ or ‘Can you build it with algebra tiles?’ I might not say who is correct but instead ask pupils to think about a related subtask and then come to some conclusion. Finally, I read out the answers to the short exercise. I then ask if there is a group where everyone agreed on the answer but got it wrong. If so, this can be used as the basis for a whole-class discussion. This isn’t necessarily more timeconsuming than me going over the exercise at the board, but has the double benefit of giving pupils the opportunity to discuss their thinking and allowing them to be active in the process.

For rich, collaborative or problem-solving tasks To begin with, I encourage pupils to read the task and formulate a couple of questions they have about it. I often ask pupils to write down ‘something you are worried about’. Genuine problem-solving does invoke a sense of anxiety – we want to use this anxiety productively, if possible. With a problem-solving task, I will give individual pupils some time to start the process; if a task has been designed to be worked on collaboratively, I’ll ask pupils to think about their first steps. Irrespective of task type, I give pupils time and space to play with their own ideas. After a period of time, I ask pupils to pair up. They can ask each other the questions they wrote about the task and share any ideas they have. I then ask them to begin working on the task together. Again, at some later point, I ask them to join another pair to form a group of four. At this point, they can pool ideas or labour for the collaborative task or problem-solving question. They can ask questions, share their thinking and check their working. It is important to clearly explain the purpose of this larger group work to pupils. Larger groups serve to open up pupil thinking to interrogation, but in an environment where it is safe to be wrong. This is an opportunity to listen to 72

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other pupils’ ideas. It is important that pupils listen purposefully, rather than focusing on sharing their own thinking. Deliberately trying to understand the perspective of others will allow pupils to gain greater insight – particularly if other pupils have chosen a different approach. This group discussion is not about asserting a position; rather, if the task has been completed correctly, it provides opportunities to learn about alternative approaches. If pupils are stuck, it will allow them to share ideas about how they might proceed. While pupils work in their pairs and groups of four, I move around the room, asking probing questions and responding to pupils who have questions for me; I am careful not to give answers or ease the problem significantly. Finally, all of this work might lead to a whole-class discussion or a final check of the answers, similar to that described for routine exercises above.

Principle 4: Pupils must understand the learning intention Lists of criteria [are] rarely sufficient. Pupils need to engage in mathematical argument and reasoning in order that they and their peers can learn the ways in which the quality of mathematical work is judged. Peer and self-assessment are essential to this process, for they promote both active involvement and practice in making judgments about the quality of work. (Hodgen and Wiliam, 2006) Too often, learning intentions and success criteria become tokenised things that teachers have to write on the board at the start of a lesson, to satisfy some top-down policy from school leaders or the inspectorate. Starting a lesson with a question which is representative of what pupils will be asked that day gives pupils some sense of what might be involved. I would also suggest that the learning intention might emerge during the course of a lesson or sequence of lessons. Consider introducing calculus; the learning intention might be to know what it means to differentiate a function and be able to do so. This is a highly complex idea at the level of school mathematics, with a multitude of related ideas and principles. Actually calculating the derivative can also be technically demanding. To capture all of this will require many lessons with a layered succession of experiences and tasks. The extent of the learning will only become clear to pupils with reflection near the end of the block of lessons. There is an old saying in teaching, ‘tell them what you are going to tell them, tell them it, tell them what you told them’. For direct teaching episodes, this might capture the essence of learning intentions. I have concerns about writing lists of success criteria, in particular, since they require pupils to translate from a language representation to a mathematics 73

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representation. As stated above, we do want pupils to be able to do this; however, interpreting words about mathematics and extrapolating meaning is demanding for many pupils and so depending on this is problematic. Instead, co-construction of success criteria with pupils can be a useful strategy. Good examples of work, modelled clearly with key positive features highlighted, might be a better substitute. Sharing the work of individual pupils under a visualiser is also a good strategy: it is useful to collate pupil responses by taking photos of their work and saving these images to the cloud over a number of years, so that examples of strong and weak responses can be displayed anonymously to future pupils. Pupils can compare work with each other to critique. In doing so, they are not only improving each other’s work, but also learning what good work is. A major issue for consideration is that ‘understanding’ is hard to pin down. We can only ever make inferences if pupils have understood the intended learning through the completion of tasks. Further, there are occasions in maths classrooms – such as for discovery or investigation-based lessons – where a learning intention would give away the surprise. In those circumstances, they would be quite inappropriate.

Principle 5: Feedback should tell pupils how to improve When feedback focuses on the pupil as a good or bad achiever, emphasising overall judgment by marks, grades or rank order lists, it focuses attention on the self. When feedback focuses not on the person but on the strengths and weaknesses of the particular piece of work and what needs to be done to improve, performance is enhanced, especially when feedback focuses not only on what is to be done but also on how to go about it. (Hodgen and Wiliam, 2006) This can be embodied through some of the strategies discussed above and other approaches, which will be discussed later in this chapter.

Mathematics knowledge for Teaching and professional noticing Effective pedagogy is underpinned by Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT). This is a broad umbrella term capturing, among other things, a teacher’s: • • • •

knowledge of the mathematics ability to present mathematical ideas knowledge of appropriate representations and how to link them anticipation of pupil misconceptions

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• knowledge of how to design instruction • appropriate task selection • appreciation of different instructional methods. (van den Kieboom, 2013) One way of considering effective teaching is to look at a matrix of MKT versus teacher responsiveness to pupil thinking, as captured in this diagram from Thomas et al. (2017). Well-developed MKT

Limited responsiveness to student’s mathematical thinking

Mathematical learning progressionbased lesson design but overly rigid implementation Limited within-lesson adjustments at the individual level

Tenuous connection to mathematical learning progressions Little to no within-lesson adjustment at the individual level Activities implemented exactly as they are written or designed

Effective professional noticing Plan-driven, yet flexible instruction Mathematical learning progressionbased adjustments at the individual level Continuous within-lesson assessment of children’s mathematical thinking

Tenuous connection to mathematical learning progressions Limited planning Instruction driven by trial and error Task adjustments disconnected from children’s mathematical thinking

Under-developed MKT

High responsiveness to student’s mathematical thinking

(Thomas et al., 2017)

Professional noticing is a skill teachers use to identify and act upon salient mathematical actions of children. John Mason describes noticing as a collection of techniques for ‘pre-paring’ to notice in the moment and ‘post-paring’ by reflecting on the recent past to select what you want to notice or be sensitised to (Mason, 2001). That is, we cannot assume we will be responsive to pupils’ mathematical thinking. This is something professional development can influence and it has been shown that experienced teachers with little focused professional development demonstrated professional noticing skills closer to those of pre-service teachers than their counterparts who participated in focused professional development. This suggests that teaching experience alone does not necessarily result in the development of such skills (Thomas et al., 2017). A framework in which to consider noticing is defined by Jacobs, Lamb and Philipp (2010) as the teacher’s capacity to: 75

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1. Attend to the pupil’s mathematical conceptions and practices as they occur. 2. Interpret these conceptions and practices. 3. Decide on a productive instructional course of action based on this interpretation. Use of noticing in a mathematical interaction between a teacher and a pupil should result in highly individualised and responsive instructional tactics. Of course, this depends on the teacher having well-developed MKT, so they can interpret correctly and choose next actions appropriately. A phrase that captures much of this first framework is ‘teaching between the desks’: a teacher who moves among the pupils as they work, checking, probing, extending, questioning, observing, listening, reflecting, and interpreting what is going on. This teacher can choose to act or choose deliberately not to act, perhaps to allow a pupil more productive struggle, making for a truly responsive teacher–pupil interaction. Professional noticing is clearly linked with effective formative assessment practices, while MKT is linked to the instructional decisions teachers make as a result of information gathered from formative assessment practices.

Teacher orientations I would suggest that every teacher of mathematics should read the paper, ‘Effective teachers of numeracy’ (Askew et al., 1997). This paper, written by a stellar cast of mathematics educators, lays out some of the beliefs and practices of effective teachers of numeracy. As in the TRU recommendations earlier, one of the key practices of effective teachers is described as having ‘systematic assessment and recording methods to monitor pupils’ progress … to inform planning and teaching.’ Teachers need to understand the progress pupils are making and where their understanding currently lies. Pedagogical approaches might be important, and a teacher’s subject knowledge is vital, but that is not enough. What teachers require is a profound understanding of fundamental mathematics and a repertoire of approaches for making this understanding accessible to pupils. These approaches will include a range of diagrammatic and verbal representations. For instance, teachers understand fraction operations but, to be highly effective teachers, they also need to understand the sub-constructs (conceptual meanings) of fraction and the approaches that might best support the development of each sub-construct. Further, they need to follow the developmental trajectories of how fraction develops. Teachers have to be able to externalise a perspective on fractions, which they have internalised to the extent that 76

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they, as mathematicians, rarely consider it explicitly. This is the mathematical knowledge for teaching. Askew et al.’s (1997) paper lays out three orientations towards teaching mathematics: • connectionist • transmission • discovery. Models of teaching attempt to reduce a great deal of complexity into ideas we can grapple with and debate. Some of that complexity is inevitably lost in the process. No one teacher will fit exactly into one of these orientations; most of us will combine characteristics which could appear in any of the boxes. However, reporting on the observations from the study, an important conclusion is stated: ‘teachers with a strongly connectionist orientation were more likely to have classes that made greater gains over the two terms than those classes of teachers with strongly discovery or transmission orientations.’

Connectionist orientation

Connectionist teaching focuses, as the name suggests, on making connections between mathematical ideas and across topics. Connectionist teachers use a variety of models and metaphors: physical manipulatives, diagrams, and written and verbal explanations. These teachers give the discussion of concept and images a central place in their classroom, which supports teacher explanation but can also be used formatively to assess pupils’ understanding. It is difficult to visualise the understanding of another person; using different representations allows teacher and pupils to build a shared ‘concept image’ on which to base discussions. Connectionist teachers tend to believe that pupils come to lessons already in possession of knowledge but that the teacher has a responsibility to intervene and work with pupils to develop that knowledge further. These teachers build on the knowledge that pupils bring with them. Connectionist teachers believe there is a balance to be struck between effective use of procedures and selection of efficient methods. For example, the subtraction 2016 − 1999 can be done using a procedure, but this is inefficient. Instead, the connectionist teacher would provide opportunities for pupils to engage with the number structure so they recognise opportunities to use less error-prone, mental techniques. Connectionist teachers believe that some of the complexity of mathematics has to be presented to pupils – for example, fractions, decimals and percentages are often taught together rather than as discrete topics. Pedagogically, these teachers do not easily fit either of the dichotomous ‘direct 77

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teaching’ or ‘inquiry teaching’ labels. Instead they use problem-solving tasks, investigation and inquiry where appropriate and teach explicitly at other times. These classrooms will have genuine whole-class dialogue. There will also be opportunities for group discussions and conversations between pairs of pupils. Teachers with this orientation tend to believe that all pupils are able to become numerate and, as such, all pupils should engage in tasks which challenge and stretch them, not just those who are more able.

Transmission orientation

A transmission oriented teacher tends to believe in the importance of fluency in a collection of written procedures. For basic number, these teachers think pupils should have a procedure ‘that works’ for each of the operations, regardless of the level of efficiency of that method. What children know and bring with them to the class is of much less importance, unless it is related directly to a new procedure. Pupil-created methods are not used as a basis on which to build more efficient and effective methods. Transmission oriented teachers tend to believe pupils vary in their ability to become numerate. If the teacher has explained a method clearly then any failure to learn must be a result of the pupils’ inability, rather than a result of the teaching. Any errors made by pupils are seen as a failure to ‘grasp’ what was being taught. These errors are remedied by further reinforcement of the ‘correct’ method. The focus on procedures inevitably leads to a segmentation of the curriculum. Mathematics is presented as discrete topics, where connections and relationships are not made explicit. Problem solving tends to be nothing more than word problems, which are essentially a context for further practice of the methods. Any problem-solving teaching is around strategies for ‘decoding’ word problems, to identify which operation to use. This is quite far from the approach of a connectionist teacher, who would encourage pupils to create diagrams and make conjectures and would provide opportunities for collaboration around genuine problem-solving tasks.

Discovery orientation

Discovery oriented teachers have a perspective that tends to treat all methods of calculation as equally acceptable, regardless of whether the method is efficient. Pupils’ creation of their own methods is central to this approach. These teachers place an emphasis on using concrete materials before proceeding to written methods. Calculation methods are selected primarily on the basis of representing the operation with physical manipulatives, rather than on what is mathematically more coherent for long term learning. Due to this, the curriculum can become 78

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fragmented, with connections not made across and between topics. Askew et al. (1997) note the emphasis on practical methods first of all: The primary belief here is that becoming numerate is an individual activity derived from actions on objects. Learning takes precedence over teaching and the pace of learning is determined entirely by the pupils. Pupils’ own strategies are the most important: understanding is based on working things out for themselves. Further, discovery oriented teachers believe pupils need to be ‘ready’ before they can learn new mathematical ideas. Pupil misunderstandings are often attributed to pupils not being ‘ready’ to learn the ideas. This illustrates an implicit assumption that pupils vary in their ability to become numerate. Teachers with this orientation value problem solving. Problem solving is rooted in practical equipment and, as such, is typically introduced through practical problems.

Implications

The overwhelming conclusion from this study was that pupils in the classes with connectionist teachers made the most significant gains in their learning. Some of the key ideas are summarised below: Connectionist

Transmission

Discovery

Teaching and learning are seen as complementary

Teaching is seen as separate and as having priority over learning

Learning is seen as separate and as having priority over teaching

Teaching is based on dialogue between teacher and pupils to explore understandings

Teaching is based on verbal explanations so pupils understand the teachers’ methods

Teaching is based on practical activities so pupils discover methods for themselves

Believe pupils learn through being challenged and struggling to overcome difficulties

Believe pupils learn through being introduced to one procedure at a time and remembering it

Believe pupils need to be ‘ready’ before they can learn certain ideas

Believe most pupils are able to become numerate

Believe pupils vary in their ability to become numerate

Believe pupils vary in the rate at which their numeracy develops

(Adapted from Askew et al., 1997) Transmission approaches are still the most common in schools. This approach also seems to dominate much of Edu-Twitter and has been captured in popular books. The debate, however, has become oversimplified. At times the arguments can be superficial, missing the important ideas that can be 79

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drawn from the vast canon of literature around mathematics teaching while acknowledging the contributions that can be made by, for instance, cognitive science. It is not a case of ‘either-or’. Ollerton et al. (2020) describe this superficial debate and the reality of classroom practice thus: ‘direct instruction’ is interpreted as telling learners everything they need to know (and we see many examples of this when we visit classrooms) while ‘inquiry’ is interpreted as leaving them to construct all methods and knowledge for themselves (which we seldom see, although we do often see inquiry). This correlates with my own experience during my time travelling across Scotland to deliver CPD and consultancy to schools. While I encountered small numbers of teachers who could be described as having strong discovery or transmission orientations, most teachers seemed to draw on a range of beliefs and practices. Most common overall, in the lessons I observed, were teachers whose practice lay somewhere between connectionist and transmission orientations, with the majority of those leaning more towards transmission. Later in this chapter, I will outline further the importance of pedagogic knowledge for teaching of mathematics. Ollerton et al. echo this, stating: The limited time for educational input on many routes into teaching mean that generic teaching skills are often the major focus for new teachers rather than pedagogic knowledge for mathematics, that is the specific knowledge about how children learn mathematics and how our concepts build up in sequences of lessons (see ACME, 2015). In most of Europe new teachers study the conceptual structure of, say, multiplication or axiomatic reasoning as part of their training, as well as experiencing mathematical inquiry as a feature of being mathematical. They therefore understand the role of inquiry in learning. A later piece of work by Malcolm Swan advocates a collaborative approach (Swan, 2006). This most closely resembles the connectionist perspective. The diagram below shows beliefs as being on a continuum between transmission and collaborative orientations. I think this is helpful, as it appreciates the nuance. We are all somewhere along that continuum and should, as professionals, be capable of moving along it based on professional reading and reflection on our own experiences. This thinking underpinned the development of Swan’s (2005) publication, Improving learning in mathematics, which we will 80

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discuss in more detail in the chapter on conceptual tasks. Swan states that many pupils view mathematics as a series of unrelated procedures and techniques that have to be committed to memory. Instead, we want them to engage in discussing and explaining ideas, challenging and teaching one another, creating and solving each other’s questions and working collaboratively to share methods and results.

A ‘transmission’ orientation A given body of knowledge and standard procedures that have to be covered. An individual activity based on watching, listening and imitating until fluency is attained. Structuring for linear curriculum learners. Giving explanations before problems. Checking that these have been understood through practice exercises. Correct misunderstandings.

A ‘collaborative’ orientation Mathematics is ...

Learning is ...

Teaching is ...

An interconnected body of ideas and reasoning process. A collaborative activity in which learners are challenged and arrive at understanding through discussion. Exploring meanings and connections through nonlinear dialogue between teacher and learners. Presenting problems before offering explanations. Making misunderstandings explicit and learning from them.

(Swan, 2005) In this publication, Swan argues that ‘traditional, “transmission” methods in which explanations, examples and exercises dominate do not promote robust, transferrable learning that endures over time or that may be used in non-routine situations.’ The key here is the word ‘dominate’. There is a place for explanations, examples and exercises – but they are inadequate on their own. The model of teaching proposed here ‘emphasises the interconnected nature of the subject and it confronts common conceptual difficulties through discussion.’ An interesting feature of the recommendations is that pupils are, sometimes, given opportunities to tackle problems before the teacher offers guidance and support. The tasks chosen must be relevant and within grasp of the pupils’ current understanding, of course. Swan’s (2005) paper highlights eight practices of effective mathematics teaching, as summarised below. The overlap with some of the other writing we have discussed is evident. Teaching is more effective when it: 1. Builds on the knowledge students already have. This means developing formative assessment techniques and adapting our teaching to accommodate individual learning needs (Black and Wiliam, 1998). 2. Exposes and discusses common misconceptions. Learning activities should expose current thinking, create ‘tensions’ by confronting students with inconsistencies, and allow opportunities for resolution through discussion (Askew and Wiliam, 1995). 81

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3. Uses higher-order questions. Questioning is more effective when it promotes explanation, application and synthesis rather than mere recall (Askew and Wiliam, 1995). 4. Uses cooperative small group work. Activities are more effective when they encourage critical, constructive discussion, rather than argumentation or uncritical acceptance (Mercer, 2000). Shared goals and group accountability are important (Askew and Wiliam, 1995). 5. Encourages reasoning rather than ‘answer getting’. Often, students are more concerned with what they have ‘done’ than with what they have learned. It is better to aim for depth than for superficial ‘coverage’. 6. Uses rich, collaborative tasks. The tasks we use should be accessible, extendable, encourage decision making, promote discussion, encourage creativity, encourage ‘what if ’ and ‘what if not?’ questions (Ahmed, 1987). 7. Creates connections between topics. Students often find it difficult to generalise and transfer their learning to other topics and contexts. Related concepts (such as division, fraction and ratio) remain unconnected. Effective teachers build bridges between ideas (Askew et al., 1997). 8. Uses technology in appropriate ways. Computers and interactive whiteboards allow us to present concepts in visual dynamic and exciting ways that motivate students. The question that needs to be addressed now is: is there anywhere in the world where this sort of teaching happens regularly? The answer to that question is: yes, in Japan.

The Japanese approach to mathematics teaching Let us take some time now to consider Japanese teachers’ perspectives. In a study by Zhou et al. (2006), Japanese teachers commented on what they considered to be the components of a well-taught maths lesson: • • • • •

pupils’ understanding of the material not too much talking by the teacher a slow enough pace to allow pupils at all levels to understand proper use of materials where appropriate proper use of the blackboard to illustrate a variety of solution strategies (neatly written).

In contrast, the same study asked some American teachers what they considered to be the components of a well-taught maths lesson:

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• • • • •

behavioural indications of pupil engagement – pupils ‘on task’ clear language and explanations by the teacher not too little talk by the teacher a fast-enough pace to ensure bright pupils won’t become bored use of materials and the blackboard, especially by the teacher and knowledgeable pupils.

From the limited number of teachers interviewed here, we can infer that the Japanese teachers tend more towards the connectionist/collaborative perspectives outlined above, while the American teachers tend towards a more transmission approach. While it is naïve to make generalisations about teachers in an entire country, there is evidence that within-country differences in teaching approach and beliefs are much smaller than the differences that exist between countries (Askew et al., 2010). It is worth noting how the Japanese teachers use physical manipulatives. Unlike discovery-oriented teachers, described above, the Japanese teachers used these materials in parallel with more abstract representations. This is in contrast to starting from the physical, with the expectation of this providing a foundation for the abstract, before gradually withdrawing the physical manipulatives. The Japanese teachers’ approach is similar to the most effective teachers from the Effective teachers of numeracy paper (Askew et al., 1997), who worked with a connected range of representations in parallel.

Lesson phasing

It is common in Japan, in primary and early secondary, for lessons to adhere to the following structure: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Presentation of a problem. Individual problem-solving by pupils. Whole-class discussion about the methods for solving the problem. Summing up by the teacher (exercises/extensions). (Shimizu, 1999)

The focus is on comparing and contrasting various solution strategies for an opening problem, while building connections with previous learning and maintaining a forward-facing perspective to what comes in later years. Each of the lesson components listed is so well established that there is vocabulary to describe the associated teacher actions.

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• Presentation of a problem is known as Hatsumon. Lessons usually begin with a practical or word problem, which might be displayed on the board or selected from the textbook. The teacher presents the problem and gives pupils time to read, then confirms that pupils have understood the problem. If not, the teacher may ask the pupils to reread it or, in some cases, might ask some pupils to share their initial thoughts about how to solve the problem. • The next phase involves pupils engaging with the problem. During this phase, pupils develop their ideas individually to begin with. The teacher is involved in the process of Kikan-shido, which means ‘instruction at pupils’ desks’ or, as I like to think about it, ‘teaching between the desks’. When appropriate, the teacher will support any pupils who are struggling, perhaps with a suggested direction or some questions for reflection. (They will not simply tell the pupil which procedure to apply.) During this phase of purposeful scanning, the teacher moves around the room, making mental notes of pupils’ work and identifying pupils who have good ideas. In the subsequent discussion, the teacher will select some pupils who have completed the task as anticipated, some pupils who have used alternative approaches, and perhaps some pupils who have reached an incorrect solution; all these processes can be useful teaching points. Pupils are sometimes given time to collaborate with a peer to share and discuss strategies, before the whole-class discussion. • The lesson then moves into the phase which involves whole-class discussion. ‘The term Neriage describes the dynamic and collaborative nature of the whole-class discussion during the lesson. In Japanese, the term Neriage means kneading up or polishing up’ (Shimizu, 1999). This is essentially a metaphor for polishing the individual pupils’ ideas and drawing them together towards some key mathematical idea, through whole-class discussion. This is considered to be an essential element of the process. Pupils identified during Kikan-shido will be called upon, in a considered order, to present their solution methods on the blackboard to the rest of the class. This will be done so there is a degree of encouragement for pupils who have used a naïve approach. Once pupils’ ideas have been presented, they will be compared and contrasted through discussion. The teacher’s role is not to tell pupils which is the best solution but to guide the discussion towards an integrated idea. Pupils will critique each other’s ideas, identifying strong and weak points. • The final phase involves summing up the findings and reflecting upon them. In Japanese, the word Matome – which literally means ‘summing up’ – is used to describe this phase. This part of the lesson encompasses the identification of important ideas and generalisations. The teacher 84

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leads the process, reviewing the key ideas and emphasising important points; they will also make a considered judgement on pupils’ work in terms of mathematical sophistication. At this stage, if appropriate, some practice questions will be issued for pupils to work on. To draw a contrast between this and the typical Anglo-American approach, we can consider the following lessons on area of a triangle, observed by Zhou et al. (2006). Both lessons introduced the formula for finding the area of triangles to upper primary school pupils but differed in the approach to establishing this. The Japanese lesson was structured around children manipulating images to find informal methods for calculating the areas of triangles and with the teacher subsequently drawing these together into the accepted formula at the end of the lesson. The American teacher introduced the formula early in the lesson: the pupils then applied this to several problems. The Japanese approach here sits much more comfortably within the frameworks of collaborative or connectionist orientations outlined previously. Of course, the problem task the teacher selects needs to be appropriate and within the grasp of pupils’ current understanding, so they can begin, at least, to identify key features and ideas.

Levels of teacher expertise

The sort of teaching described is more challenging than that which uses mainly transmission approaches. This is recognised in Japan too. In their first teaching posts, teachers are considered to be apprentices: they work with an experienced colleague, who coaches and mentors them closely with a focus on subject-specific pedagogy. According to Sugiyama (2008), teachers are generally regarded as passing through three stages in their practice: • Level 1: The teacher can tell pupils important basic ideas of mathematics such as facts, concepts and procedures. • Level 2: The teacher can explain the meanings of and reasons behind the important basic ideas of mathematics for pupils to understand them. • Level 3: The teacher can provide pupils with opportunities to understand these basic ideas and support their learning so pupils become independent learners.

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We might consider a progression such as:

Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 What and how

What, how and why

What, how and why originating from problem solving

To implement a Level 3 lesson, teachers must be able to choose a good task, to identify the pre-requisite knowledge, and, most importantly, must be able to nurture pupils to apply their knowledge to a new situation.

Contrasting with other countries

Japan performs very well on international comparative studies such as TIMSS and PISA. However, other countries, with different approaches also do well. Is it possible to attribute the connectionist philosophy to the high levels of achievement in other countries? You can have an egalitarian education and high standards (Finland), or you can have a selective one and still have high standards (Singapore). You can have a problem solving pedagogy (Japan) or you can have a teacher centred one (Korea) and either can lead to high standards. (Askew et al., 1997) There are commonalities between these countries, particularly those in East Asia. Curricula tend to be well thought out and supportive of longterm learning. In a video analysis study comparing countries in east Asia and the West, Neubrand (2006) noted from his observations that ‘making connections’ could be a central distinctive issue of teaching in high-achieving countries. Looking at tasks alone, however, does not reveal how teachers use these tasks in practice. Procedural tasks can give rise to cognitive acuity that becomes focused on conceptual understanding. Similarly, potentially rich tasks can be made procedural by the teachers’ interventions. Neubrand stated that, in highattaining countries, problems classified as ‘making connections’ tended to retain this focus in the course of teaching. However, in lessons based around problems 86

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initially classified as ‘using procedures’, 20–55% of these problems evolved, through teaching emphases, into ‘making connections’ or ‘stating concepts’ problems. The role of the teacher in drawing more from the task is vital; the teacher can take a resource and draw pupils into richer mathematical thinking. What appears clear is that thinking that is rooted in making connections is a key consideration in successful mathematics teaching. The pedagogical approaches may vary, the task selections might sometimes seem uninspired, but the teacher actions and prompts have the potential to ‘make or break’ the richness of a lesson.

Pedagogy and tasks Doyle (1988) describes the work that pupils are required to do as being about processes and product. Work is the context in which a significant amount of classroom time is spent. Teachers often present lessons or structure tasks which focus on computational procedures and accuracy of calculations. In many tasks, pupils know in advance which strategy is required. For example, word problems involving multiplication will immediately follow an exercise on practising multiplication. This is problematic, as part of learning procedures is knowing when to apply them to unfamiliar situations. If pupils know, in advance, that all of the problems will require multiplication, this decision-making process has been removed. From observational study, Doyle suggests that teachers often emphasise a smooth-flowing work system with high levels of production. This is normally focused on familiar work or on tasks where pupils are heavily guided. As I have already outlined, procedural fluency is important, but a mathematics education focusing solely on procedural fluency is incomplete. Of course, a focus on production of answers is easier to manage as a teacher and pupils might accomplish a large amount of work in a classroom where they are faced with only familiar, scaffolded or procedural practice. But is production our aim? Production alone cannot be taken to mean understanding. Pupils can practise procedures or follow algorithms but fail to understand the underlying principles and relationships which underpin these exercises. Another problem, where smooth flowing of the work system is seen as a priority, is that the focus is predominantly on producing answers. It is entirely possible for pupils to produce correct answers while still holding on to misconceptions, which go unnoticed by the teacher because pupils have been given little opportunity to articulate their thinking. A mathematics classroom in which pupil thinking is not aired and non-routine problems are rarely encountered might look successful on the surface – because pupils are producing correct answers – but often does not result in long-term learning or meaningful comprehension. 87

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Teachers often interpret the curriculum and smooth it out by removing the inherently problematic content; ‘they won’t be able to do that’. By using a large amount of prompting to keep production rates high, teachers limit pupils’ opportunities to develop autonomous learning capabilities. The dependency on the teacher is accentuated. Yet, what we really want is for pupils to become independent problem solvers, who are confident enough to face new mathematics on their own. Where teaching is set up so pupils are overly dependent on the teacher, pupils will say things like, ‘Mr Smith got me through the exam. I’ll only do maths next year if he is taking the class.’ This is not a badge of honour for a teacher. Instead, we should aim to be so effective that the pupils don’t realise the extent of the role we have played in their success. A goal is for pupils to confidently proceed to further study, with knowledge, procedural fluency and conceptual understanding but also with a sense of themselves as mathematicians. Smooth-flowing lessons focused on routine or familiar work are suitable for managing the complexities of classroom environments. They provide a clear structure and boundaries, are accessible to almost every pupil, and have tangible outcomes – the work pupils produce. However, teachers need to describe the connections between lessons to build broad understanding of content and to place individual tasks within a wider context of understanding. This is not easily done using transmission. Teachers have an important role in ensuring pupils engage meaningfully in mathematical thinking at all times. This is challenging to do when pupils are engaged in either rich collaborative or problem-solving tasks. Both of these types of task are typically more complex than routine problems and require more time in deep thought. If we want pupils to develop the capacity to think, reason and problem solve, those pupils need exposure to high-level, cognitively complex tasks. The potential of a task can be made or broken by teacher actions, both in the immediate context and also as a result of the classroom culture that has been established over time. ‘Although attention to the nature of mathematical instructional tasks is important, attention to the classroom process surrounding mathematical tasks is equally needed’ (Henningsen and Stein, 1997). When pupils engage with problem solving or rich tasks, there is a degree of ambiguity as to what is expected compared with routine exercises. Pupils will get stuck – and quite rightly so; after all, a problem is not really a problem if we know the solution path at the outset. Whenever a pupil encounters a problem, they should think to themselves, ‘I do not know the solution to this problem yet.’ There is a natural desire from pupils for a reduction in task complexity; how the teacher reacts to this is key. The teacher might decide to give pupils some information that eases the task significantly – for instance, 88

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stating which procedure to use. This reduces the demand and robs pupils of the opportunity to engage in high-level mathematical thought. Pupils are now applying a procedure, as in a routine lesson. Anderson describes a specific type of scaffolding for when a pupil cannot work through a task on their own: essentially, a teacher or peer provides assistance that enables the pupil to complete the task alone but does not reduce the overall complexity or cognitive demand of the task (Anderson, 1989). There is a number of reasons for pupils not engaging in high-level mathematical thought. Primarily, the task needs to be within grasp of pupils’ current understanding: there must be adequate prior knowledge to provide a secure basis for meaningful engagement with the task. There are also issues surrounding a pupil’s motivation – is the problem one they want to solve? Placing accountability on pupils to participate in the task also plays a role. If the teacher views a task as an ‘add on’, pupils are likely to pick up on this. For some tasks, particularly practical work, pupils may enthusiastically manipulate the materials and, on a surface level, appear to be engaging meaningfully, when in fact they are not thinking mathematically at all. It is the role of the teacher here to make explicit connections between the activity and the mathematics. Mathematical task as represented in curricular/ instructional materials

Mathematical task as set up by the teacher in the classroom Task features Cognitive demands

Factors influencing setup Teachers’ goals Teachers’ knowledge of subject matter Teachers’ knowledge of students

Mathematical task as implemented by students in the classroom Enactment of task features Cognitive processing

Students’ learning outcomes

Factors influencing students’ implementation Task conditions Classroom norms Teachers’ instructional dispositions Students’ learning dispositions

(Henningsen and Stein, 1997) The diagram above illustrates the transformation of the task designer’s intentions through to actual pupil learning. The role of the teacher is clear. First, the teacher will have specific goals in mind, in terms of what he or she hopes the learning outcomes will be. They might not appreciate the extent of what is involved in a task if they have not either attempted the task or consulted the 89

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teaching notes. This isn’t necessarily an issue with routine exercises, but with rich tasks the teacher risks failing to utilise the full potential of the task – as I have learned from experience! When I first used the excellent resources from the Standards Unit (Swan, 2005), I chose to simply use the printout materials, without reading the notes. The following year, when I did read the notes, I realised how much potential learning I had left off the table. At this set-up phase of any task, the teacher might want to encourage specific ways of working. For instance, they might encourage pupils to use multiple representations to support their explanations and justifications, or to try multiple solution strategies to confirm their answer. These ways of working are examples of task features. There are many factors which influence pupils’ implementation of a task. The level of cognitive demand placed on pupils is influenced by the types of support offered and by the extent to which a teacher is willing to let a pupil struggle with a difficult problem. The extent to which pupils are willing to engage in productive struggle is another major factor. The classroom culture, ways of working and shared understanding of what it means to do mathematics all come into focus here. Hugh Burkhardt explains how his design work takes these issues into account: Teachers often don’t let pupils struggle – they feel as if they have to ‘sort it out’. Ann Brown had a lovely phrase: ‘lethal variance’. When we design a lesson we don’t expect it to go exactly as defined, but we don’t want the variance to completely undermine the purpose of the lesson. Early intervention to ‘sort it out’ is a typical way in which lethal variation can happen. The ‘common issues tables’ in those lessons are there to give teachers a very practical introduction to the research. They serve as a guide to the errors pupils make. For instance, we know many pupils think of distance–time graphs as a picture and come to generalise, incorrectly, that ‘if the graph goes up then this means the journey is uphill’. These common issues are listed, but so are the suggested interventions. These are all about making the pupils think harder, not about telling them the answer. Teaching non-routine mathematics is about blending observing and intervening, only in a way which moves pupil thinking forward. It’s not about putting forward what the teacher is thinking. In tasks where high levels of cognitive demand are intended, such as problem solving or rich collaborative tasks, it can be difficult to sustain a high level of thinking. In their study, Henningsen and Stein (1997) established three typical sorts of ‘cognitive decline’ and their possible causes: 90

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Type of cognitive decline

Possible causes

Decline into cognitive activity which is focused on mechanical use of procedures with no connection to underlying meaning

Can be a result of teachers ‘taking over’ difficult pieces of a task and performing them for pupils Focus becomes on completeness or accuracy of answers at expense of thinking processes Too little time allocated Classroom norms aren’t established for rich working: pupils rarely engage in these sorts of task, normally doing routine problems

Decline into unsystematic exploration

Inappropriate task selection relative to prior knowledge No clear expectations of mathematical activity outlined Too little scaffolding in task to support pupils – teachers need to know their pupils to establish how much is needed, without overly reducing cognitive demands Too much time allocated

Decline into activity with no mathematical focus

Inappropriate task selection relative to prior knowledge Classroom management problems Too much time allocated No clear connections between activity and the mathematics

Henningsen and Stein assert that ‘the mere presence of high-level mathematical tasks in the classroom will not automatically result in pupils’ engagement in doing mathematics.’ They reason that the ambient classroom environment, established by the teacher, has to support this engagement. The mathematical learning community in the classroom will have ways of working and values which are enacted, if not stated explicitly. A teacher might say ‘take your time’ but then praise a group for finishing first. What is clear is that establishing a classroom culture and ways of working which will result in pupils being able to engage in and then sustain high-level thinking is challenging. The pedagogical actions of the teacher influence the type of classroom culture which is established. Tasks are important: they are the basis of the activity. Fortunately, there exist superbly-designed materials from the Standards Unit and the Mathematics Assessment Project. These tasks, due to their excellent design features, usually result in high-level pupil thinking. They also come with excellent teacher notes which can be highly impactful forms of professional learning. Teachers interested in developing their pedagogy are advised to start by trialling some of these lessons.

Classroom discussion When making sense of ideas, pupils need opportunities to work both independently and collaboratively. At times they need to be able to think and work quietly, away from the demands of the whole class. At other times, they need to be in pairs or small groups so they can share ideas and learn 91

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with and from others. And at other times they need to be active participants in purposeful, whole-class discussion, where they have opportunities to clarify their understanding and be exposed to broader interpretations of the mathematical ideas that are the present focus. Providing opportunities for pupils to express, discuss and argue about ideas is particularly important in mathematics teaching. However, effective ways of managing class discussion are complex and take time for teachers to develop. Hodgen and Wiliam (2006) describe the key elements involved in developing classroom discussion: • • • • •

challenging activities that promote thinking and discussion encouraging pupil talk through questioning and listening strategies to support all learners to engage in discussion peer discussion between pupils rich and open whole-class discussions.

The following teacher moves can also be productive, according to Michaels, O’Connor and Resnick (2008): • revoicing (when the teacher restates something a pupil has said, attributing it to the pupil) • asking pupils to restate someone else’s reasoning • asking pupils to apply their own reasoning to someone else’s reasoning • prompting pupils for further participation • asking pupils to explicate their reasoning • challenging pupils’ reasoning by asking for counterexamples.

Reflections We end this chapter with a series of reflections from various educators about their own pedagogy. There is much insight to be gained from these excellent thinkers. Each of these reflections is direct quotation.

Mike Ollerton

I want the pupils to work towards the understanding of the key mathematical concepts. The task is there for them to do some initial work on. I want to set up a task where the main ideas underneath the concept begin to reveal themselves. That means I’m not having to explain the concepts. What I don’t want to do is to explain what I understand about the concept because I want the learners to make their own sense and understanding of it. I don’t necessarily want them to understand and see things the way I see things. 92

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For instance, if I put myself in the position of a pupil, my most powerful learning is when somebody gives me something to think about, or to work on or to discuss. Things fall into place for me through that interaction with the task and with other people. I’m thinking, ‘Yes! That’s what the essence of this is about’ kind of thing. … Later on, I can then see isomorphisms between the structurer’s own concept and how it links with other concepts. So it’s not just the concept in isolation; it’s the concept and how it links with other concepts. I don’t want somebody to tell me those links, I’ve got to create those links for myself. But that doesn’t mean to say that my teacher can’t give me some direction and ask questions along the lines of, ‘What about this and what about that?’ On the contrary, I’ll describe something I didn’t think was good teaching. I was at a conference and during a session there was a really interesting idea the presenter had given us delegates to work on. After about five minutes, they stopped us all and told us what the answers were. They had this lesson plan where they wanted to do this, this, this and this. We were just passengers on their journey. Yet the starting task was so powerful, I could’ve worked on that for 15–20 minutes, then come back to see what other people were doing with it, so on and so forth. It was a new task to me: I’d never thought about the idea that way before, it was just so exciting for me. All of that excitement got torn away and then the rest of the session became a lecture. It became the teacher showing off. It became what I describe as ‘teacher lust’, where the teacher is either lusting for the learners to know what they know or the teacher’s wanting to show off what they know. It was all kind of pre-scripted. That, to me, wasn’t really about the learning experience. Instead of that, I would rather find ways of me, as the teacher, not being in control. I’d rather have a situation where I wasn’t expecting people to believe what I tell them just because I’m the teacher.

Tom Francome

Pedagogically – it depends. There is never a ‘I’ll never do that’. I use the same tasks a lot. I think it’s important that teachers can extend and adapt tasks in the moment. I like using the same tasks, year on year, in a scheme of work because then I have experience of where to take it – what sort of questions to ask etc. I know the sorts of things pupils might say, where they might get stuck. I know good things to do before the task, how to follow it up etc. Doing the same tasks across the department is a way of building in quality assurance. I think we should have some canonical tasks, which are tasks everyone has to do, written in bold on the scheme of work. 1089 would be one such example! (Write down a three-digit number whose digits are decreasing. Then reverse the digits to create a new number, and subtract this number from the original number. With the resulting number, add it to the reverse of itself. The number you will get is 1089!) 93

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In preparing to use a new task I think it is important to do it, get a feel for it, pre-empt pupil questions, think about how to extend or ease, think about possible misconceptions and get a sense of what pupils are attending to. Of course, there are things which we take for granted, so that is hard. Part of the skill of a teacher is being able to distance yourself from doing the maths. Part of you does the maths and part of you watches yourself doing the maths. Then you get the insight for pupils etc. Other times, I’m happy to just go into a lesson with a new task, but you need to have built up confidence and a way of working in the classroom to do this. You need to feel comfortable in not knowing what to do, in front of the pupils. Sometimes it is fun to say, ‘Mr Smith sent me this task, he thought you’d have fun with it. Let’s see what we can do with it.’

Susan Whitehouse

My view on teaching maths is that the teacher’s role is to help the pupils to form their own understanding. It’s not the teacher’s role to convey their own mathematical understanding to their pupils, and it’s certainly not to convey a collection of set methods. Having said that, I would rather a pupil ended up with the teacher’s understanding than with no understanding at all! Multiple representations – in particular looking at things in both an algebraic and a graphical way – are important to me. I also think mathematical discussion and collaboration are very important. Asking questions that challenge a pupil’s understanding and force them to justify themselves, sometimes by creating cognitive conflicts, is certainly part of my teaching. This might be part of a task, but it might be in direct questioning. I will always have mini whiteboards out in my lessons, not necessarily for ‘show me’ Q&A (though I do a bit of that) but more because I find the pupils are more willing to have a go and take mathematical risks knowing that it can be erased. A good task will be accessible to all the pupils but still challenging to the top end. It will allow me to circulate and to listen to the pupils discussing maths. This will let me pick up on misconceptions and see how the pupils view the concepts, which will inform my teaching. It may sound trite, but as teachers we need to always plan our lessons keeping in mind our aims. I don’t just mean our narrow ‘learning objectives’ type aims, but also our wider mathematical and pedagogical aims. For example, suppose I was teaching a lesson on completing the square. With every class I’ve ever taught that topic to I’ve probably had very similar objectives … [in terms of the central] process of completing the square. But I will also have other aims to do with a focus on proof or problem-solving or mathematical language or collaborative working or resilience or curve sketching etc. These aims will vary 94

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from group to group and the task I choose has to be appropriate for supporting these aims. Something that is a great task when I’m teaching a topic to one class won’t necessarily be a great task when I’m teaching the same topic to a different class, because it will depend on my wider aims.

John Mason 1+2=3 4+5+6=7+8 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 = 13 + 14 + 15 I know I didn’t come up with this, but I have no idea where I found it! I do it in silence. I write 1 + 2 and then I pause, write =, then pause and scratch my head before writing 3. Then I pause before writing 4 + 5 + 6 =, then pause again and scratch my head before writing 7 + 8. Almost always, in any reasonable size group, I’m going to hear a sound of surprise from somebody in the room. The reason for this is because everybody else is expecting 15 instead of my 7 + 8. That sets me up and now, depending on the maturity and sophistication of the audience, I might play. I might put my chalk or my pen where the 9 is going to be and pause for a minute and try to get them to anticipate what’s coming next. So, this task I use to try and underline the notion that I want everyone to be anticipating what is coming, making conjectures and then modifying that conjecture on the basis of what happens. Then I do the 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 = and pause, write 13 + 14 + 15 and then I have options. I can turn and say to them ‘and is it?’, or I often pause at this point and pretend I am checking it. Then the next line, I’m about to write 16 when I stop and say something like, ‘I know that you know what I am likely to write next. Am I right?’ and everybody says ‘yes!’ even though they haven’t got the slightest idea, as I could do all sorts of unpleasant things at this point! So, we do the 16 and then we work on different ways of checking that these [calculations] are correct. I’ve been shown something like 11 different ways of checking that they are correct without actually adding them all up. For example, 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 = 13 + 14 + 15 can be thought of as 9 + (9 + 1) + (9 + 2) + (9 + 3) = (12 + 1) + (12 + 2) + (12 + 3). Consider the 13 and the 10, we have (12 + 1) and (9 + 1). They differ by 3. The same for 14 and 11, 15 and 12. We have 3 of these ‘differ by 3’ which gives us the missing 9! That’s just one of many ways of thinking about this. Next I usually say that my wife is thinking of a number and I don’t know what it is, so I’m going to call it a cloud and draw a little cloud. That tells me the line that we want to do next. We’ve done the first, second, third line and we now want to do the cloud-th line. So I ask, what will be the first number in the cloud-th 95

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line? Somebody is usually able to offer that it is cloud squared. I then check that everyone has caught on before asking them to write out the cloud-th line. Next, I ask them to check it. They may look confused, but I suggest that they use the same method they use to check the specific cases. They can use the same method to check the generality. Specialising and then generalising arise from this task. This can take me 10 to 30 minutes depending on the group I am working with. Then, at the end of the session, once there has been a break, I show them these four pictures, one after the other.

Once they’ve talked to each other about what is the same and what is different about [the pictures], I ask them to count how many little cubes there are in the right-hand slice of the bottom-left diagram (16) and then in the next slices (17, 18, 19, 20). Next I ask them how many little cubes there are in the front slice of the bottom-right diagram (21), then in the other slices (22, 23, 24). What we’ve done here is to look at the line beginning 16, from the original task! There is often an audible reaction from people as they come to realise the connection with what we worked on earlier. Now we have a basis to carry on. We can consider how the fifth line would look, in blocks etc. We could then suggest making up another one which is a bit different in its layout. And you can go on and do all of that, with an audience of appropriate sophistication. But we don’t have to – we can come at it many different ways!

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5 Classification of Tasks So far, I have argued for a rich and varied diet of mathematical tasks, to develop the whole mathematician. I consider procedural fluency, conceptual understanding and mathematical behaviours of equal priority. To help our exploration of different task types, I considered that it would be useful to classify the tasks in some way. There are many possible ways of doing this.

The demands of different tasks In Chapter 2 we encountered the idea of tasks as being the vehicle for mathematical activity and asserted that the mathematical activity itself is no guarantee that learning will happen. We require pupils to think hard about the right things and then to internalise those ideas. The role of the teacher in all of this is to ensure that the ideas are aired and that pupils’ thinking is given a platform, so it can be refined if required and to allow the teacher to compare and contrast the thinking of different pupils before bringing things together. The tasks we set pupils determine the nature of their interaction with the mathematics. In our task selection, we need to have a clear focus on the sorts of thing the task will require pupils to think about. Crabbe says of tasks that ‘they serve a communicative purpose between teacher and pupil, by conveying the teacher’s intent for learning and the pupil’s conception of that intent’ (Crabbe, 2007). If we seek to develop some fluency with a procedure then drill exercises may suffice; however, if we seek both conceptual understanding and procedural fluency of some given idea then drill exercises are likely inadequate vehicles for this learning. Stein and Smith (2011) describe levels of cognitive demand as summarised in this table:

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Level of cognitive demand Lower level

Higher level

Memorisation Reproducing facts, rules, formulas or definitions with no connection to underlying meaning Cannot be solved using procedures, because a procedure does not exist or because the time offered is too short to use a procedure Not ambiguous

Procedures with connections Attention on purpose of procedure and understanding of mathematical concepts Suggest pathway to follow that is connected to conceptual idea Represented in multiple ways Requires cognitive effort

Procedures without connections Algorithmic, use of procedure is specifically called for Little ambiguity No connection to meaning that underlies procedure Focus on correct answer, rather than developing mathematical understanding No explanation required

Doing mathematics Requires complex and non-algorithmic thinking Requires exploration and understanding of mathematical concepts, processes or relationships Requires considerable cognitive effort Requires students to analyse the task and examine constraints that may limit the solution or strategies

A helpful elaboration of this for evaluating task selection in lessons in Singaporean classrooms is shown: Levels of cognitive demand

Characteristics of tasks

Level 0 – Very low Memorisation tasks

Reproduction of facts, rules, formulae No explanations required

Level 1 – Low Procedural tasks without connections

Level 2 – High Procedural tasks with connections

Algorithmic in nature Has a meaningful / ‘real world’ context Explanations required

Level 3 – Very High Problem solving / doing mathematics

Non-algorithmic in nature, requires understanding and application of mathematical concepts Has a ‘real world’ context / a mathematical structure Explanations required

Algorithmic in nature Focused on producing correct answers Typical textbook word problems No explanations required

(Kaur, Wong and Chew, 2018)

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To learn well, we need to think hard and this thinking has to be productive. I broadly agree with the classification categories shown above but have one reservation. In some cases, the technical demands of a procedure require a high level of cognitive demand, even without thinking about connections. For instance, when pupils first learn calculus, the level of practice and attention to detail required in differentiating something like the function shown below results in many errors. 3

2 y = √x – 1 3x

There are several places where pupils can, and invariably do, trip up during initial learning. At this point, adding the burden of thinking about connections seems too much. The aim should always be to teach in such a way that pupils are making connections. However, in practice, experience suggests that procedural fluency sometimes comes before understanding. I begin my teaching of differentiation, for instance, with a lot of conceptual work, but am never convinced that pupils have grasped the ideas. It is only when pupils are armed with some tools with which to tackle problems on their own, that the sense of things begins to materialise. Richard Skemp (1976) talks about instrumental and relational understanding. He describes relational understanding as ‘knowing both what to do and why’ whereas he considers instrumental understanding to be ‘rules without reasons’. He acknowledges that ‘one can often get the right answer more quickly and reliably by instrumental thinking than relational’, but still considers instrumental learning as a proliferation of little rules to remember rather than fewer general principles with wider application. Like any model, Skemp’s is there to be tested. Subsequent thinking has suggested that procedural and conceptual understanding develop iteratively (Rittle-Johnson, Siegler and Alibali, 2001). This seems a sensible suggestion to me; when I reflect on my earlier career – where I had fewer models, metaphors and mathematics knowledge for teaching – pupils still developed conceptual understanding through the routine textbook exercises that dominated my task selection. However, my conjecture is that more pupils would have developed this level of understanding if I had used more tasks with that specific purpose in mind. Consider the two example tasks shown below. They are almost identical but the way in which the teacher has asked pupils to complete the tasks dictates the nature of the activity. Task A is an example of a procedure without understanding: it is unlikely that work on tasks like this will result in significant 99

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gains in understanding. The mantra shown – ‘Divide by the denominator and multiply by the numerator’ – exemplifies Skemp’s idea of rules without reasons. In Task B, the subtle addition of an alternative representation potentially changes the nature of the task. Pupils now have to think about the meaning of the operation performed, so concept and procedure are complementary to each other. Task A 2 Find of 40 5 ‘Divide by the denominator and multiply by the numerator.’ 40 ÷ 5 = 8 8 × 2 = 16

Task B Find

4 of 21 7

21 ÷ 7 = 3 4 × 3 = 12

Another way of considering tasks is by their overarching purpose. Doyle, in his study, described a class which was observed over six weeks. According to Doyle (1988), tasks fall into one of four categories. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Reinforcement tasks: Guided practice on new skills. Review tasks: Covering a skill learned earlier in the year. Application: Problems requiring a mix of different skills. Assessment tasks: Tests in which pupils demonstrate attainment and retention of skills.

This approach seems fruitless as a basis for discussing tasks or the resultant pupil activity. The actual task content and cognitive demand here seem interchangeable. We use tasks at different points in lessons but, in my view, this is a superficial way of thinking about task selection. The interesting discussion is around questions such as: What do the review tasks look like? How do the tasks selected by one teacher differ from another? The most striking and useful model of task classification I have encountered is from Malcolm Swan (below). The three broadest classifications align clearly with what we have discussed in the preceding chapters. There is a recognition here that all three forms of mathematical understanding are important; pupils need to develop procedural fluency, acquire conceptual understanding (which serves as a basis for reasoning) and apply what they know to solve problems.

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Framework for selecting tasks and activities Goal Factual recall Procedural fluency Conceptual understanding

Reasoning and communicating Solving problems (Mathematical literacy)

Student Product

Task and activity ‘genres’

Performance

Memorise and rehearse through ‘études’ that practice specific skills

Classification

Sort, classify, define and deduce

Representation

Describe, interpret and translate Exploring principles with deliberate interaction with attributes

Analysis

Explore structure, variation, connections

Argument

Test, justify and prove conjectures

Model

Formulate models and problems

Solution

Employ strategies

Critique

Interpret & evaluate solutions, strategies, models

(Swan, 2006) The separation between product and activity/process is also clearly made. For instance, we might have a goal of pupils developing conceptual understanding. As part of this conceptual understanding, we may want evidence that pupils understand different representations. The sorts of activity in which pupils are required to engage (describe, interpret and translate) are all shown.

Authentic versus inauthentic

Kaur states that some tasks may be considered ‘authentic’, which is problematic as it suggests that some tasks might be classified as ‘inauthentic’. Authentic seems to suggest an ‘assumed correspondence between the nature of the task and other mathematical activities that might be undertaken outside the classroom for purposes other than the learning of mathematics’ (Kaur, Wong and Chew, 2018). Swan’s model grapples with authentic mathematical tasks by breaking down modelling in some detail.

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Framework for selecting tasks and activities Student product

Model

Task and activity ‘genres’

Formulate models and problems

Identifying accessible questions that may be tackled within a situation Making suitable assumptions to simplify a situation Representing a situation mathematically Identifying significant variables in situations Generating relationships between variables

(Swan, 2006) Applying mathematics to ‘authentic’ situations is a desirable activity for pupils to engage with. A challenge facing teachers is that many school mathematics problems are contrived versions of reality. The problems which best stand up to scrutiny tend to be those that do not present a utilitarian faÇade, but are instead problems for their own sake within mathematics, for example a geometrical puzzle. It is important to appreciate that, as pupils are learning mathematics, the tasks they encounter to learn the subject need not be the same as those used in the actual practice of the subject; that is to say, the practice of a profession is not the same as learning to practise the profession (Gulikers, Bastiaens and Kirschner, 2004). Daisy Christodoulou suggests that practice of the profession ‘depends on the detailed, knowledge-rich mental models stored in long-term memory. The aim of performance is to use those mental models. The aim of learning is to create them. The activities which create such models often don’t look like the performance itself’ (Christodoulou, 2016). As such, I argue we should have no hesitation is using ‘inauthentic’ mathematical tasks as the basis upon which pupils can develop an understanding of the subject and appropriately develop the skills required to tackle ‘authentic’ problems.

My approach Considering the models above and being most heavily influenced by the work of Swan, I have created a classification table of my own. This separates the desired strand of mathematical learning from the sorts of task in which pupils might engage. These activity types are not intended to be exhaustive, but hopefully give a sense of what is possible within each strand of learning.

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Task type

Potential activity

Procedural fluency

Developing fluency with calculations and algorithms Identifying the most suitable calculation/algorithm to apply to a problem Learning names, definitions and other arbitrary ideas Recalling and recognising necessary facts, such as multiplication facts and standard integrals.

Conceptual understanding

Sorting and matching Classifying Multiple representations – interpretation and generation Scaffolded proof Guided discovery Discussing mathematical statements Combining ideas Interpreting and creating stories

Problem solving

Mathematical investigations Mathematical inquiry Contextual modelling Non-routine problem-solving tasks

In the coming chapters, the reader will find it useful to keep in mind that developments in one strand of mathematical thinking will potentially develop thinking in other strands. The framework serves as a way of organising our discussion. It is impossible to meaningfully discuss the use of mathematical tasks without exploring real examples. In the following chapters, I include many examples of the sorts of task that might result in the activities shown above.

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6 Procedural tasks Well mastered routines free conscious attention to focus on aspects of a task which are novel or problematic (Cockcroft, 1982) Mathematics teachers know the importance of pupils developing procedural fluency. However, much of the literature on task design seems to focus on conceptual understanding and problem-solving. There is, perhaps, a sense that developing procedural fluency in pupils is easier than focusing on concepts or problem-solving. This is a perspective I struggle to reconcile with my own experience. I look at the examination papers in Scotland and can see that the majority of questions are procedural. If pupils had procedural fluency, they would be passing the exams comfortably and attainment would be higher nationally. Developing procedural fluency clearly isn’t a trivial goal. In this chapter I will outline a variety of procedural tasks and consider the cognitive activity in which pupils might be engaged. Tasks will typically contribute to the development of more than one strand of mathematical understanding, but those described in this chapter have procedural fluency as the primary aim. Procedural fluency includes, but is not limited to: • • • •

developing fluency with calculations and algorithms identifying the most suitable calculation/algorithm to apply to a problem learning names, definitions and other arbitrary ideas recalling and recognising necessary facts, such as multiplication facts and standard integrals.

Activities which might help to develop this include: • practice • engagement with études • attention to the ‘fine details’ 105

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• • • • • •

matching selecting procedures recognition activities recall activities taking attention off what we are doing learner generation.

There are two main conditions for using these tasks: • interleaving • spacing versus massing.

Spacing versus massing The NCTM summarises some of the key principles we will encounter in this chapter, stating that ‘practice is essential for building fluency; however it should be brief, engaging, purposeful, and distributed’ (NCTM, 2014). Practice has a place. Sometimes an unpretentious exercise where pupils have the opportunity to engage with technical details can be useful. However, it is my view that exercises of 20-plus repetitive questions are often not effective tasks. Frequently, as pupils work through long exercises, the focus becomes less on principles and more on ‘cranking the handle’ or replication without attention. Pupils get into a groove of doing repetitive manipulations and any deep mathematical thinking dissipates. Of course, there are situations where longer exercises can be useful – for instance, with calculus, where there are so many twists and turns in ‘regular’ questions that extensive practice can be beneficial. Generally however, we need to consider the idea of spaced practice. Rohrer and Taylor (2006) tell us in their research that it is better to space practice problems over time rather than doing all the practice at the same time. An excerpt of an exercise is shown below (the original exercise had 40 questions). Imagine we have two groups of pupils, Group A and Group B. Group A completes the exercise in one go: they sit in class, working through all 40 questions and perhaps finish them off at home that night. Group B, instead, works on 10 of the problems in class. They then do three more sets of 10 questions spaced over a number of weeks.

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6 Procedural tasks

Convert each mixed fraction to an improper fraction

7 = 12

7

2 3 = 5

2 4 = 7

1 7 = 3

7 = 10

4 3 = 5

5 4 = 7

1 6 = 8

5 5 = 6

1 9 = 9

8 3 = 9

11 = 15

3

1 5 = 7

3 3 = 8

2

8

7

7 = 9

4 = 15

The research shows that pupils who distribute their practice over time have significantly stronger retention. Even more striking is that if group B does only the first set of 10 questions, with no subsequent practice, the retention difference between the two groups is negligible. Dwell on that for a moment. Group A did lots of extra practice but this did not result in stronger retention, due to the fact that it was massed together. All of the extra questions might give pupils and teachers a sense of security, but this is false. The implication is that if we think it is necessary for pupils to do all 40 questions (which I don’t) then it is much better to space them out over time. In the initial lesson, I would ask the class to answer ten of the questions but then move on to tasks that require them to attend to the structure, principles, relationships and various representations of the ideas they are working on. I would also be sure to use a visual representation in the teaching of the ideas, so pupils are not simply applying a procedure ‘blind’. To be clear, I am not against traditional exercises – I use them with my own classes and they certainly have a place. But how we use such exercises matters. An idea for using a mixed exercise, which I have found useful, is as follows. Rather than have pupils work through this task from start to finish, I like to pick out four key questions. On the board, I display something like this:

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Question 5 Solution: x = 10

Question 15 Solution: x = −3

If you get this wrong, do: Q2, 3, 4, 7, 9 Answers: 2. x = 3 3. x = 9 4. x = 2 7. x = 3 9. x = 1

If you get this wrong, do: Q11, 12, 13, 17, 19 Answers: 11. x = −2 12. x = −5 13. x = −10 17. x = −5 19. x = 1

Question 24

Solution: x =

5 2

If you get this wrong, do: Q22, 23, 25, 27, 29 Answers: 3 9 1 22. x = 23. x = 25. x = 2 5 2 2 1 27. x = 29. x = 3 4

Question 35

Solution: x =

-5 2

If you get this wrong, do: Q30, 31, 32, 37, 38 Answers: -3 -9 -1 30. x = 31. x = 32. x = 5 7 6 -4 1 37. x = 38. x = 7 3

There are two reasons for this. First, I don’t want pupils wading through lots of questions they can already do. This approach means they do one question which is representative of a ‘class’ of questions and only do more of that ‘class’ if they answer incorrectly. Secondly, I want pupils to be able to reflect on their own learning and feel a sense of ownership. I want them to feel there is flexibility in the task, to allow them to get quickly to the point where they do require practice. Developing this as a way of working with classes, I find that pupils tend to take it seriously, without cheating: they quickly realise that they would only be cheating themselves, so instead, they engage with a real sense of purpose in the exercise. If pupils demonstrate perfect solutions to the four representative questions, I either offer them some rich problem-solving task or ask them to work with other pupils who are struggling with a particular question type. This chapter offers several ideas and approaches for incorporating practice into lessons, which look a little different from ‘traditional’ exercises. Some look like they may belong in a textbook but have design features that are uncommon in most UK texts.

Practice tasks Equivalence and simplification of fractions

Many textbooks have exercises, often on consecutive pages, focused on writing equivalent fractions and then on simplification of fractions. Pupils can come to see these two ideas as distinct and unrelated. The task below is intended to show how they are one and the same. Through engaging with the procedural aspects of simplification and making equivalent fractions, pupils can make connections and begin to see that the two process are essentially the same.

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3 4 5 3 8

= = = =

8 10 9 16

= = = =

12 15 8 12 32

=

16

=

30

=

18 25 40

=

= = = =

28 60 30 64

= = = =

320 480 600 150 400

The first two rows deal with equivalence and simplification in turn. Some of the fractions can be completed sequentially while, for others, pupils will need to refer back to the original fraction to scale. The purpose at this stage is to focus attention on the proportional relationships between fractions. It is in the third and fourth rows that the task comes together. In these rows, pupils have a choice of which fraction to find first. There are then several possible paths through the task. There are opportunities here for rich dialogue around the mathematical structures. Particularly, the theme of ‘doing and undoing’ permeates throughout. Simplification is multiplication of denominator and numerator by some value k, where 0 < k < 1, whereas creating equivalence involves multiplication of numerator and denominator by some value k, where k < 0 or k > 1. If we multiply numerator and denominator by k, we then need to multiply them by 1 to undo this process; multiplication by 1 requires multiplication by k to undo. k

k

Collecting like terms

This task was designed as an alternative way for a low-attaining group of pupils to meaningfully interact with collection of like terms. I had done some work with algebra tiles but felt the pupils still weren’t demonstrating the levels of understanding I would hope for. I knew the class needed ‘purposeful practice’ – practice where they were not only carrying out the process but also thinking deeply about the ideas at hand. Another consideration was that of pupil engagement. A sure-fire way to turn off this class would have been to give them a sheet with a large number of repetitive questions on it. (Perhaps this is true of every class? Maybe this lower-attaining group was less willing to comply with expectations to engage with such activities?) There were also considerations around learning, classroom management and pupil engagement when I wrote this task.

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(1)

5x

(2)

2x

(3)

−3x

(4)

−x

(5)

2y

(6)

−3y

(7)

y

(8)

4

(9)

−7

(10)

I issued the set of cards above and asked pupils to cut them up (a small loss in learning time perhaps, but it would have taken a lot of my prep time to organise all this in advance). Once the cards were cut out, I asked pupils to group them in piles, any way they liked. Some pupils grouped by like terms, some into piles of positive or negative terms, others had a pile with constants and another pile of cards with variables. This was an interesting moment: we had been working on like terms for a few lessons, but the pupils’ responses demonstrated to me that likeness wasn’t the most immediate idea that came to their heads when encountering some algebraic terms. I then asked the pupils to regroup the cards into piles of like terms, if they had not done this already. Next, I asked the pupils to start on the task shown below.

Task One

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

What do cards 1 and 2 make? What do cards 3 and 4 make? What do cards 1, 2, 3 and 4 make? What do cards 1 and 8 make? What do cards 1, 2 and 8 make? What do cards 1, 3 and 8 make? What do cards 1, 4 and 9 make? What do cards 2, 4, 7 and 9 make? What do cards 1 and 7 make? What do cards 1, 2, 6 and 7 make? What do cards 3, 4, 5 and 6 make? What do cards 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 make?

I offered no re-teaching as we had spent time on collecting terms in previous lessons. I wanted pupils to transfer that learning to this new scenario. As I moved around the room, I noticed some pupils getting incorrect answers. As I observed them, I could see that they were not physically laying out the terms side by side for each question. I suggested they could lay the required tiles next to each other, then regroup those tiles for likeness, and this was the prompt some pupils required to start being successful. Many pupils intuitively did this, but it was interesting to me that some did not. Was this further evidence that 110

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6 Procedural tasks

the mental actions I would hope to see were not yet embedded in these pupils? It would have been harder to pick up on these small insights if the pupils had been working on a routine exercise on paper: I can tell pupils to lay out their work in a certain way, but I need to see how they naturally lay it out first. The second part of the task, shown below, involves working backwards from a target to find the cards required; this proved slightly more challenging. I find that after working on a ‘doing process’, it is often useful to ask pupils to focus on the ‘undoing process’.

Task Two 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Which cards are needed to make x? Which cards are needed to make −2x? Which cards are needed to make 0? Which cards are needed to make 7x + 3y + 4? Which cards are needed to make an expression with 3 negative terms?

The final part of the task involves using the blank card from the set to complete Lucy’s expression. At this point, I could have asked more questions of the sort used in Task One. Instead, I opted to continue to increase the demand. The questions here are more challenging versions of those shown in Task Two.

Task Three

1. Lucy says it is possible to make 3x + 3y + 3. How close to this can you get? 2. Fill in the blank card so you can make Lucy’s expression. 3. Using the new card from Q2, is it possible to make the following expressions? If so, which cards do you need? a. −x − 2y − 8 b. −4x − 3y − 4 c. −3x + 4y − 9

All of these questions could have been posed without using the cut-out cards but, in the context of this class, the cards made a significant difference to the activity pupils undertook; this in turn affected the insights I was able to discern from that activity. A number of colleagues have tried this task and reported similar observations. A key point to take from this task is the significant role of classroom dynamics in effective task selection and design. The fundamental teaching point here, to maximise the benefit of the task, is to move around the room, teaching between the desks. 111

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Multiplication Sam Blatherwick shared his thinking about teaching lower-attaining pupils, setting out to provide many opportunities for spaced practice of ideas with these pupils. We found with these students that very little maths was entirely secure from previous stages and that we wanted to go back over topics again and again. We believe this will make a difference with these pupils. Sam gives the following example: Which one do you think will be bigger? 84 × 93 or 83 × 94 What’s the difference?

This is an opportunity for pupils to practise a procedure. However, the task also has an additional layer: there is an opportunity for forming and testing a conjecture. This is not only about the procedure but also about making sense of calculations. This would be followed by a similar task (such as the one below), so the insights from the first task could be used to inform thinking. Which one do you think will be bigger? 25 × 54 or 24 × 55 What’s the difference?

The procedure is practised but attention is paid to the relationships between the products. Some generalisations emerge in words, through whole-class discussion and conversation with some groups; Sam would then formalise these generalisations with algebra as appropriate. Sam might then extend the task with a subsequent prompt such as:

123 × 456 or 156 × 423

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Parts of circles

This is two tasks for the price of one!

I usually ask pupils to find the perimeter of each shape and then the area of each shape. In my experience of teaching circle calculations, pupils often struggle to attend to the variables at play – for example: • What is the value of the radius? • What is the value of the diameter? • When do we halve to get the final answer? There is lots of halving and doubling in these types of circle question and pupils can become bogged down. This task, by keeping the numbers the same (although not always referencing the same variable) aims to focus pupil attention on the role of halving and doubling of radii/diameters and of areas and circumferences. Pupils have to develop an appreciation of situations where we double the radius but halve the answer, or halve the diameter and then halve the answer, and so on. One might argue that it would be useful here to work through lots of example-problem pairs, (a sequence where pupils are alternate between studying examples and doing similar problems) but I have not found this to be the case. It is useful for getting pupils started but there is just too much possible variation in types of circle problem. As such, engagement with a range of problems and deep thinking are required. I could build a list of ‘atomised’ example types and teach every single one explicitly, but there will always be a possible situation that I haven’t taught. It is better for pupils to use a few examples to establish principles, rooted in understanding about how to tackle these problems, rather than trying to memorise steps. The key feature of this task is that there is a degree of invariance. The number four appears in every question, and the aim of this is to reduce the ‘noise’ that 113

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arises when different numbers are used. I encourage pupils to reflect on each question at the outset: ‘What does the 4 represent this time? What information do I need to get started with this problem?’. I allow pupils to discuss strategies with each other, although every pupil is accountable for producing their own solution. Because 4 appears throughout, pupils sometimes make conjectures about relationships between the shapes. Often these are perceptive – for example, recognising that the shapes in questions 1, 3 and 5 all belong to the same ‘whole’ circle. At other times, pupils make incorrect assumptions around the effect of squaring the radius; for example, if one circle has a radius which is double that of another circle, pupils incorrectly assume that the area of the second shape will be double that of the first. If pupils have demonstrated some real fluency with the problems, I might encourage them to investigate the idea of area scale factors while other pupils continue to practise. A nice follow-up task is to ask pupils to generate some more shapes for the exercise. The sorts of question they come up with are often far more imaginative than those on the original sheet.

Increasingly difficult questions

Dave Taylor came up with the idea of his task format, Increasingly Difficult Questions (IDQs), after learning about the textbooks commonly used in Shanghai. Dave saw that Shanghai textbook exercises had a lower starting point than English textbooks but a much more challenging end point with quicker increases in difficulty levels. Dave recalls: I took the idea to school to share with the department and worked with some friends on a few tasks. I’d write the first question, a colleague the second, a different colleague the third and then back to me – the idea was to make it more difficult, but not too difficult. I then started doing this in the departmental workroom, writing the first two questions to an exercise and asking others to write the next one (and only the next one), with people contributing once someone else had. After a few rounds, I started creating them at home and sharing them online. Dave generally uses these tasks as a substitute for a traditional textbook exercise. He normally works through some example-problem pairs to scaffold pupils’ initial thinking. After this, he gives pupils the IDQs, which provide an opportunity for pupils to step back to more basic knowledge before quickly experiencing increments in difficulty. Dave also uses these exercises as a diagnostic tool, to ascertain pupils’ current level of understanding and fluency. 114

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Let’s look at two examples of Dave’s work, beginning with a task about perimeter. The idea of perimeter is something pupils have been working with since primary school – it is not new content at secondary level. As such, work on routine exercises – for example, finding the perimeters of rectangles – is likely to be rather pointless for the majority of pupils. This task begins with a familiar example and the challenge gently increases with each new question; the level of challenge by the end of the exercise is significant. There is no immediately obvious solution path, so pupils have to do a little thinking. Perimeter II a)

d)

b)

c)

e)

f)

Two equilateral triangles are joined to make a rhombus. What is the perimeter of the rhombus?

g)

Two squares are put together to make a rectangle. What is the perimeter of the rectangle?

i)

h)

j)

k)

l)

Two squares of side 12cm Two squares of side 4cm are are joined along on of their joined at an edge as shown. edges as shown such that ⅔ The vertex of one square is of each edge are touching. the mid‐point of the other What is the perimeter of the square. What is the octagon? perimeter of the compound shape?

This second example focuses on fractions, taking a familiar exercise and ramping up the challenge significantly. Again, identifying fractions of an area is something pupils will have experienced at primary level. This task gives pupils an opportunity to develop their thinking and reasoning about areas and fractions considerably. 115

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Fractions of Shapes a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

Engagement with études

Colin Foster has written a series of excellent tasks called ‘mathematical études’, and we discussed these tasks in depth. I could have placed them in either the problem solving or procedural chapters of the book – they are quite novel! These tasks aim to find creative, imaginative and thought-provoking ways to help learners of mathematics develop their fluency in important mathematical procedures. It is often assumed that the only way to get good at standard procedures is to drill and practise them ad nauseum using dry, uninspiring exercises. Études, instead, embed extensive practice of important mathematical procedures within more stimulating, rich problem-solving contexts. Colin’s research suggests that études are as good as exercises in terms of developing procedural fluency – and it seems likely that they have many other benefits in addition (Foster, 2018). Here is an example of an études task: 116

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(Foster, 2015 [1]) A concern in some mathematics classrooms is that some pupils rarely get to experience true problem-solving. The teacher might say, ‘when you reach this level (wherever it may be) then you’ll be ready to tackle some interesting 117

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problems’. With certain pupils, we might be inclined to think they would be better working on basic procedural work, rather than problem-solving. The concern is that these pupils are always stuck doing routine tasks, which has implications in terms of their perception of the subject. How will they ever get excited by or passionate about mathematics? Colin explains: I think there has to be a little bit of balance and maybe there is a place for tackling problems at an earlier stage. I think what I’ve been trying to do with my work on études, has been to marry those two things so that pupils do get experience in problem-solving. However, those tasks are not totally open-ended; they are written such that the pupil experiences the task in a structured way so that they’re developing their essential processes along the way. Colin describes the real tension in classrooms between developing procedural fluency and allowing pupils time to work on non-routine problems: Pupils have to develop fluency in things. They have to be able to do things, almost automatically. If they’re going to be able to do harder stuff, we have to help automate the basic things, so that they are able to think about more complex things. If they always have to work out the basics, it really limits what they are able to do in terms of problemsolving. I remember talking to colleagues and we broadly agreed about that. Despite this, there was a kind of reluctance. It was a case of ‘I suppose we have to have some boring lessons some of the time, otherwise the pupils will never develop enough fluency in everything.’ I felt that was a bit depressing. I also reflected upon when I’m presenting stuff to teachers. I’d say, ‘let’s try some rich tasks together’. I sometimes thought that that can almost make teachers feel guilty, because we have a lovely time together as maths teachers. It was as if I was saying, ‘don’t you know there’s all these wonderful, rich tasks out there?’ and the teachers think, ‘of course I know that and I’d love to do them’, but the reality is that they need to spend time on other stuff to develop fluency in their pupils. It seemed like, as task designers, it would be easy to sit around making up lovely, rich tasks knowing that most of the time teachers won’t be 118

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able to use them because they’ve got other constraints. I talked to people at Nottingham about designing tasks for fluency. The reaction seemed to be, ‘well, why would you be interested in fluency, we’ve got exercises for that’. The feeling was that fluency was kind of sorted. We know that exercises work, we know how to do that. I began to think, as a task designer, do I want to keep designing more and more tasks, which get used during a Friday afternoon or whenever there’s time at the end of the term, or do I want to design tasks that support the day-to-day business of teaching? So, my interest shifted towards the sort of tasks that teachers have to use on a daily basis. I wondered if I could invent tasks that would be a replacement for exercises. Not extra stuff that teachers had to find time to do. As such, the intention with the études was a more interesting way of developing fluency as an alternative to exercises. The teacher can explain, can teach however they want to, some new ideas, and when they get to the point where they would say, ‘go and practise twenty of them’, instead they issue an étude. An étude aims to generate that same concentrated, focused practice of a particular, specific skill, but hopefully in a more interesting, maybe problem-solving kind of context. A confession; when I first looked at this task, specifically when I saw the diagram, and I hadn’t yet read any of the text, my reaction was to think that Colin could have simply written out the six equations as a conventional exercise for pupils to solve. This, of course, was a terribly superficial way of thinking about the task. The follow-up prompts Colin has listed are the key ingredients in making this étude result in some rich activity. This feature is true of all the étude tasks: they start off with something that’s equivalent to an exercise. This is a deliberate design choice by Colin. He makes the argument: ‘if pupils are capable of doing exercises, then they’re capable of doing études’. The initial task is a form of assessment: can pupils solve equations? This part of the étude presents four linear expressions in four boxes, with each expression joined to every other expression by a line. The lines that join the expressions make them into equations – so, for example, the top two boxes are joined by a line to form the equation: x + 5 = 2x + 2. The lovely fact that arises from doing the task is that the solutions to these equations turn out to be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Colin explained that it was actually quite difficult to come up with expressions to have this solution set. When he uses the task with teachers, they might say, ‘that’s quite nice’, but fail to appreciate how challenging it is to create a polygon with nice solutions like this. 119

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The main task is for pupils to generate expressions to form their own equations. This is demanding and involves a lot of trial and error. The idea is that pupils are trying to create a polygon with nice solutions, but at the same time they are doing a lot of practice in solving equations. Colin wants pupils to undertake a specific sort of cognitive activity: thinking about the undoing processes and considering things like, ‘to make the solution 4 instead of 3, what do I need to change?’ Because there are four joined-up expressions, a change in one expression changes everything else. This means pupils have to keep going back, revisiting the whole polygon. When pupils do this, there’s an awful lot of crossing and scribbling out and modifying. If a pupil already knows how to solve a set of equations, they might become demotivated to learn if they are just asked to do the same thing over and over. Hopefully, the étude will give them something a bit more interesting to think about: that pupil is not really focusing on how to solve equations anymore. Instead, they’re thinking more broadly about this big problem. Colin explains that the task can be adapted easily to meet the specific needs of pupils: There are some quite demanding problems that can arise from this. For example, what set of six numbers can you generate using four expressions like this? I’ve had teachers working on group theory trying to answer that question. The sky’s the limit in terms of extensions. At the other end, when you’ve got pupils who are really struggling and only just managing to solve their first equations, then it can be made much simpler. You can start with three expressions in a triangle which is a lot easier than the four expressions. You can invite them to simply find whole number solutions. That’s enough of a challenge to begin with. It’s very easy to self-differentiate these tasks. As pupils become more fluent at solving the equations, they naturally begin to look for more demanding scenarios. The teacher plays an important role, moving around the classroom, being interested in the work of individual pupils. For instance, if a pupil is finding the task too hard, the teacher can make it easier to begin with and then build the complexity back in. If pupils are finding the task too easy, we can suggest extensions or, better still, ask the pupils what they can do to extend the task. With this task, there is a natural self-checking and peer-checking that goes on, which means there’s less need for the teacher to keep checking the answers. Colin says a common question from teachers is, ‘how do you cope with an étude where pupils are making up their own numbers?’ Colin replies: 120

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I think that often takes care of itself because if a pupil says, ‘Oh I’ve got 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 as my numbers’, then you can bet the child next to them is going to check that and say, ‘Oh no you haven’t, that one doesn’t work!’ It creates a scenario where pupils care about the answers a bit. Ordinarily if you’re doing a page of exercises and you get x = 6, it doesn’t matter; you just go on to the next question and do another one and if one’s wrong you probably wouldn’t notice. Whereas with this, pupils tend to pick up your errors either because that answer has an effect on other answers or because they’re challenged by someone else.

Attending to fine details As the complexity of procedures increases, it is useful to use tasks that deliberately focus pupils’ attention on the small but important technical details. The following tasks demonstrate a couple of ways in which we might do this.

Complex numbers

This table shows a sequence of questions where pupils have to convert complex numbers to polar form. The table layout serves as a scaffold for their thinking during this process. I have included the ‘principal argument’ column because, in my experience, many pupils forget to adjust their angle to be in the correct range of values. The table is a device designed to focus pupil attention on the principal argument: telling pupils to remember is one thing, setting up some activity where they encounter the often-forgotten point is quite another. Carteisan form

–4–3i

Argand diagram

Principal Modulus Argument argument θ

5

3.78

−2.5

Polar form

5(cos(–2.5) + isin(–2.5))

2+2i –3+2i 5–12i –24–7i

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This second table is more demanding. At this level in particular, I think it is important to keep the level of cognitive demand high. The hardest element in this task is likely to be converting back to the z = a + ib representation in the first four rows – this is shot through with trigonometry and Pythagoras. Pupils have to find triangles where the hypotenuse is the length of the modulus value but also need to satisfy the requirements for the argument. In creating the task, I had to reconfigure my triangles a few times to make them work. Carteisan form

Argand diagram

Principal Modulus Argument argument θ √2 2

Polar form

7π 4 – 3π 4

√2 √5

(– 43π) + isin(– 43π))

√2(cos

5(cos(–2.5) + isin(–2.5))

Chain rule

Differentiation using the chain rule, particularly with regard to trigonometric functions, is a significant developmental jump for pupils. The idea here is that pupils need to be able to establish the ‘layering’ that exists in each of these questions to apply the chain rule (if required). The notation for powers of trig functions is not intuitive. While this looks neat, pupils need to be able to translate it (at least mentally) to the form to understand how to process it. The task below employs careful use of variation theory. In each column, the trigonometric terms remain invariant; further, the digit used is always 2 (in the first column) or 3 (in the second column).

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y = 2sinx

x = 3cosx

y = 2sin2x

x = cos3x

y = sin2 x

x = cos3 x

y = 2sin2 x

x = 3cos3 x

y = sin 2x

x = cos33x

y = 2sin22x

x = 3cos33x

2

Despite encountering a sequence of carefully chosen examples and working through example-problem pairs, many pupils struggle with textbook exercises on this topic. Often there is too much variety in the questions, so pupils struggle to get a sense of the principles. These textbook exercises make good mixed practice once pupils have begun to develop some degree of fluency and confidence but often place too much expectation on pupils at an early stage in their learning. I wonder if, because we are working at the ‘top end’ of school mathematics, authors think exercises with a steady gradient are less important? The task above can be used in several ways. I like to display it on the board and ask pupils to do their work on mini whiteboards. I work down the page, zig-zagging between the columns. To start, I’ll pose the top sine question; once pupils have held up their solutions, I’ll go over it if required or point out errors to individual pupils. Next I’ll pose the cosine question from the second row and repeat the process, before posing the sine question on the third row. Pupils receive immediate feedback as they work through the exercise. At this point, I’ll wipe the board clean and then ask pupils to go back and answer the questions we missed out as we zig-zagged. This means the scaffolding is gradually removed, and provides an opportunity for pupils to go back and apply what they learned from the first three practice attempts. This is not the same as the commonly used ‘example-problem pairs’ approach; by this stage, we would already have done that. Instead, this is about consolidating the instruction and learning acquired during ‘example-problem pairs’ or similar and moving towards variety. At this halfway point, I’ll write the solutions only, without working, and ask pupils to peer-correct each other’s work. We then repeat the whole sequence for the bottom half of the task. I have found that this gradual ‘handing over’ can help pupils to quickly make the leap to fluently working with mixed examples on these problems.

Matching Susan Whitehouse writes a lot of excellent resources for A-Level. She regularly uses matching tasks, which, as she explains, result in pupils receiving useful feedback by undertaking the task itself. Here is an example of one of her tasks.

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First column

x

1

1 x 1 x

2 3 4 5 6

3

x

1 x2 1 2x3

11 12

( x)

13 14 15

−1

B

1 2

x −3

L

x2

x7

C

1 2

x −1

M

x −2

( x1 )

D

x −4

N

x2

E

x −1

O

2x −1

3

8

1 x −8

9

3

x

P

x2

( )

G

x4

Q

x −5

H

x2

R

x3

I

2x

S

2x −3

J

x3

T

x2

x x

18

1 x −2

x2

1 2

8

10

K

F

17

x2

x

x × x × x6

2 x3

x

2

A

−3 2

16

7

9

Second column 1 1 × x 2 x3

19 20

4 x2

(4x1 ) ( x4 ) 2

2

4x 2

1

1

2

7

When I interviewed Susan for this book, she said: ‘I like the way that matching activities give you a bit of a check on learning – if your answer isn’t there then you know you have a problem – but without giving you the answer.’ Susan explains that she deliberately included common errors and misconceptions – this is always a good strategy with this type of tasks. When creating a task like this, it is important to ensure pupils can’t do the matching by looking at some other discriminating feature. For instance, the only coefficients Susan uses are 2 and 4, whereas if she had used different coefficients in the first column it would have made the task significantly easier (because pupils could simply direct their attention to the coefficients). They would still be engaged in activity, but below the level intended. Instead, the task has been written in such a way that it forces pupils to consider the powers and roots and make conversions between them. Susan suggests this is a collaborative activity, in that pupils can discuss and argue with each other about the matchings, but says each pupil should produce a written record of their own work. This is a subtle but important point. The process of working through and discussing the matchings is in itself valuable but requiring all pupils to have a product at the end of the activity adds an element of accountability. 124

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Susan reminds pupils of the tactic of substituting in numerical values to check the matchings, so pupils can resolve any disagreements without teacher intervention. Finally, she says: I might get different pupils up to the front to justify different matchings or get them to write out their working for a particular one in full. I find that students are quite motivated to finish these activities, regarding it as a bit more of a game and more fun than a traditional textbook exercise. Even at this level, motivation and engagement are considerations in a classroom. This task is the basis of active learning, where pupils are meaningfully involved and the level of mathematical demand remains high.

Procedure selection An important part of learning various procedures is knowing when to apply them. In this section, there are examples of tasks that focus on procedure selection.

Subtraction procedure selection

At first glance, this task appears to be a rather mundane set of questions. Typically, when presented with a set of questions like this, pupils are inclined to apply the standard subtraction algorithm to each one irrespective of whether that is the most efficient approach or not. Instead, I suggest that this task can be used in a different manner. 302

356

782

312

645

900

− 190

− 187

− 653

− 185

− 498

− 563

873

506

783

756

635

532

− 854

− 289

− 405

− 478

− 212

− 342

In many cases, rewriting the question given, using the principles of constant difference, will make it easier to calculate mentally. For instance, it is laborious to calculate 629 − 304 using the written method but rewriting as 625 − 300 makes the calculation much easier. There are different strategies which might be applied to the questions. At the outset, before attempting any of the questions, I ask pupils to group them in terms of the strategy they might employ. This requires pupils to attend to 125

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surface structure features which are common to each strategy group. Once they have identified their groups, they can then attempt the questions. While working through the questions, pupils sometimes realise they have misgrouped one of the calculations and it would work more efficiently using a different strategy. I often make the point that, ‘if two exchanges are required, you are probably using an inefficient strategy’. I suggest that for three-digit subtraction we should never have to exchange twice. This task captures the idea of taking a routine, repetitive task and raising the level of cognitive demand for pupils, to establish some more meaningful learning.

Sorting trigonometric equations

Let’s consider a second example where a conventional exercise can be used with more attention, this time with trigonometric equations. Often, pupils learn the techniques for the different equation types discretely and, when presented with one question in isolation (for instance, in an exam) don’t know which technique or procedure to apply. Of course, we want to teach the processes with a focus on understanding the notation, so pupils understand the principles rather than simply relying on memory. Nevertheless, procedure selection for this topic is often problematic. (a) 3tan2 x – 1 = 0

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(b) 2cos2x + 3 = 2

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(c) 4sinx – 3sin2x = 0

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(d) 2cos2 x = 1 – cosx

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(e) 4cos2 x – 1 = 2

0 ≤ x ≤ 2π

(f) 5tan(2x – 40) + 1 = 6

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(g)2sin2x + √3 = 0

0 ≤ x ≤ 2π

(h) 3sin2x – 3cosx = 0

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(i) cos2x = 5 = 4sinx

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(j) 4tan3x + 5 = 1

0≤x≤π

(k) 2cos(2x + 80) = 1

0 ≤ x ≤ 180

(l) 6sin2 x + 5 = 8

0 ≤ x ≤ 2π

(m) 5sin2x – 6sinx = 0

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(n) 3cos2x +cosx = – 1

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

0 ≤ x ≤ 2π

(t) 5sin2x + 3 = 1

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(q) 5sin2x + 6cosx = 0

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(t) 2cos2x – 4cosx + 3 = 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 360

(s) 3cos2x + 3sinx = 3

0 ≤ x ≤ 2π

(t) 4sin(2x + 10) – 3 = 0

(o) tan2 x –

1 =0 3

0 ≤ x ≤ 360

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A simple, yet powerful modification to this exercise can be achieved by asking pupils to group the questions by strategy; this is the same pedagogical choice as in the subtraction task above. Once pupils have made their groupings, I ask them to check with a peer and give them space to justify and argue about their choices. The key idea here is that pupils recognise the essential surface features that determine the type of equation to solve. Double angles do not always mean application of a double-angle formula, for example.

Percentages

Craig Barton (2018) coined the term ‘Same Surface, Different Deep’ (SSDD) for his take on procedure selection tasks. Craig describes the issue with many textbooks in which, after some routine Pythagoras questions, there is a mix of contextual problems in various contexts: ladders, diagonals of shapes etc. All of these problems have differing surface structure, but the same deep structure – they are all Pythagoras problems. Pupils don't have to select a strategy: they know to use Pythagoras at the outset. In contrast, SSDD problems present a variety of questions that appear to have the same surface structure – for instance, they may all look like Pythagoras questions at first glance – but require different underlying mathematics. It is just as important to recognise when not to use Pythagoras as to know when to use it. I have written some of these sorts of task with my own classes, such as the example below. 1. I get a 12% pay rise. I now earn £2000 per month. What was my previous rate of pay?

2. I get paid £2000 per month. I get a 12% pay rise. What is my new rate of pay?

3. I buy £2000 in shares. They increase in value by 12% per month for four months. What are my shares worth now?

4. I buy £2000 in shares. I sell them 12 months later for £2400. What is my percentage proﬁt?

This example highlights a classic topic where pupils sometimes struggle to select the correct strategy. Pupils may have excellent procedural fluency and a good conceptual grasp of the individual types of percentage problem represented here. However, without an awareness of the subtleties of the language, they are unlikely to correctly determine which strategy is required. This SSDD example gives pupils practice with different types of percentage question, but also forces them to read carefully to decide which method to use. When this type of task is first used, many pupils don’t succeed with it at all, so it is important to have a whole-class dialogue about the cues in the wording. 127

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I have found a useful follow-up, a few days later, is to give the class the set of questions again, with different numbers and the questions arranged in a different order. I will often then ask pupils to create a set of questions of their own; at this stage, I like to challenge them to make the question types harder to distinguish. Pupils enjoy swapping their question sets and challenging each other.

Integration techniques

The question below, set by Jonathan Dunning, is a powerful example. There is less variance between the examples than in a ‘normal’ exercise, but this is perhaps more difficult. When using this task with pupils, I often hear them say, ‘but surely that’s just the same as that one?’

Pupils working with this level of calculus have to be able to pay attention to the small differences (I think that’s a calculus joke). These questions may look similar but they require different strategies: integration by substitution, by parts, by partial fractions or by using algebraic manipulation are all represented here. To an expert, a quick glance is likely to reveal a strategy for at least some of the questions; for pupils, however, the distinctions between them are often not immediately clear. What Jonathan has produced here, in this seemingly simple task, is really well-thought-out, excellent advanced-level practice. I have found that pupils always enjoy this task and become really engaged with it. There is something about it looking as though it ‘should be easy’, as one pupil said to me. A nice feature is the lack of question numbers: there is no set path through the questions. If they choose to, pupils can start with the ones that are immediately obvious to them, before spending time thinking about the others. Jonathan has included the nice prompt: ‘Can you add one to the collection?’ Once one has been created, a follow-up prompt could be, ‘and another? and another? …’ I like to take questions generated by members of the class for all of 128

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us (including me) to work on. Often, pupils come up with excellent demanding questions; there is an expectation that the questions pupils generate will be doable at this level, so they can’t arbitrarily write down anything. I recall one pupil who eagerly suggested xx ++ 11 for us all to do. He was astonished by how quickly the rest of the class completed it: unlike him, they noticed that it simplifies to 1, which is quite a trivial integration.

Recognition activity Quadratic inequalities

Above, I described Craig Barton’s idea of SSDD problems. However, I think there are many opportunities where Different Surface, Same Deep (DSSD) problems are powerful. For example, the four questions shown below look nothing like each other, but each of them potentially leads to a quadratic inequality. Many pupils find the topic of quadratic inequalities challenging. They need to learn how to solve these inequalities and recognise them when they arise in other situations. As Craig rightly says in his book, giving pupils an exercise where they know the solution strategy in advance will not necessarily enable them to apply the idea to problems beyond the confines of that exercise. Once more though, I argue that pedagogical choices around the use of a task are a key determinant.

I tend to offer the set shown above to pupils several weeks after having focused on quadratic inequalities. I give pupils no clue that quadratic inequalities will be important for this task; I like to let them stumble upon this (or not) for themselves. I ask pupils to work individually on this problem set for a period of time before I open it up to peer discussion. They tend to be able to get started with all the questions, but unless they recognise and know how to solve quadratic inequalities, they will not be able to complete them. Many students work through several steps with each of the problems, but are unable to successfully complete any of them. When these pupils begin to realise that the step they are finding problematic is the same for every question, there is a palpable sense of dawning realisation. 129

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This task serves several purposes. First, it is intended to provide mixed practice from across the curriculum. The main purpose though, is to sharpen the pupils’ radar for quadratic inequalities, as well as providing some practice in solving them. It is about being sensitised to spot quadratic inequalities when the topic arises ‘unexpectedly’.

Structural arithmetic

Here is a task in which the distributive law is key to solving the problems, but this is not clear at the outset as no mention of it is given. I was inspired to write this task after creating question 7 by adapting a task by Max Wertheimer. Try to calculate the answers to each of the following in the most efficient way. There is a smart, efficient way of doing each question. 1) 12 × 11 + 12 × 9

6) 0.62 × 37.5 + 3.75 × 3.8

2) 1 × 2 + 4 × 2 4 5 4 5

7)

3) 18% of 72 + 82% of 72

8)

4) 15% of 60 + 70% of 30

9)

5) 0.3 × 100 + 0.07 × 1000

10) 212 + 212 + 106 + 106 6

389 + 389 + 389 + 389 4 143 + 143 + 143 + 143 + 143 5 757 + 757 + 757 + 757 + 757 + 757 + 757 757 + 757 + 757

Generally, pupils have no difficulty in identifying the distributive law if it is in bracket form a(b + c). However, starting with ab + ac and then using this structure is a different prospect. The task is designed so that insights on each question can influence pupils’ thinking in the subsequent ones. I might not present it as a worksheet; instead, I might display one or two questions on the board, give pupils some time to work on them and discuss in pairs, and then pull everything together in a whole-class discussion. I would then present the remaining questions. I don’t want to take ownership from the pupils by doing worked examples: such an approach can lead to pupils simply comparing problems and examples and thinking, ‘it’s one of those ones. I do this’. Instead, the purpose here is for pupils to actively engage in the hunt for structure themselves. As teachers, we need to have faith that some pupils will spot the structure, but it is the subsequent discussion and reflection that will draw the attention of all pupils to the inner purpose of the task. The wording of the question is quite deliberate: ‘There is a smart, efficient way of doing each question.’ Pupils can busily engage in activity, but if they apply crude strategies, which do not take the distributive law into account, then I anticipate that meaningful learning will not occur. 130

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Recall activity Multiplication grids

Developing fluency with multiplication tables and associated division facts is complex. It requires a succession of experiences and representations layered over time. There is no single activity or task that will lead to pupils fully learning their times tables. For pupils to become successful learners of mathematics, it is important that they do not rely on figuring out common results every time they wish to use them. This would be a significant added burden on working memory, which we should seek to avoid. There is an important distinction between being able to ‘figure it out’ and ‘knowing it’. Another problem with not knowing common results – such as those in the multiplication tables – is that pupils are unlikely to recognise patterns that indicate their presence. This is particularly pertinent to division. Once pupils = 8 and 56 = 7 are in recognise that 8 × 7 = 56, the related division facts of 56 7 8 reach. Without this knowledge, pupils are forced to resort to ‘working out’. Choral chanting of times tables might be perceived as being archaic; however, one of the powerful things about chanting, if done in unison, is that if a pupil loses their place, the others in the class will know the answer and he/she will quickly be able to get back ‘on track’ with the chant. The idea of the chanting is to develop recognition of the numbers involved. I wouldn’t want to ask individual pupils to chant multiplication tables in front of the whole class. Those who can do it will do so and those who can’t won’t. I don’t see any outcome from this other than humiliation for those who are struggling. Nevertheless, pupils do need individual tasks on recall and recognition of the facts, to accompany the deep conceptual work they will undertake in learning about multiplication. The humble multiplication grid is a short task which pupils can use to practise recall of multiplication facts. I find these grids helpful with pupils in early secondary who haven’t yet learned the facts by heart. ×

7

9

8

5

6

6 5 9 7 8

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I like such grids for a couple of reasons. If pupils get stuck, there are many patterns and additive structures they can use to ‘work out’ the value that has not yet been found. Perhaps controversially, I do tend to use a time limit with these grids, albeit quite a generous one. After completion, I want pupils to focus on the facts they didn’t know. In subsequent lessons, pupils can attempt to improve on the number they manage to get correct in the time. How we use the grids and structure their design depends on the pupils in front of us. I tend to include an ‘easy’ table such as 2 or 10 if working with a group who are just beginning to learn times tables. I find this helps to give them a sense of being able to get started. Grids are also useful as they can be easily tweaked to incorporate associated division facts, as shown below. ×

7

9

8

5

6

54 40 63 35 48

Some might argue that this is instrumental process without any concern for meaning – ‘rules without reasons’. However, this is only one task in the sequence of tasks pupils will engage with when working on multiplication. We also know that gains in fact recall can lead to gains in conceptual understanding – the two are not mutually exclusive. The Nuffield report on high-attaining countries (Askew et al., 2010) suggests that, in the UK, an unhelpful separation exists between the two, with procedural fluency and conceptual understanding in mathematics largely seen as mutually exclusive aims. In contrast, teaching in Pacific Rim countries is largely dominated by procedures and hence supportive of procedural fluency, but rooted in mathematical principles such that it is more mathematically coherent and meaningful.

Taking attention ‘off’ what we are doing Factors

When I interviewed Tom Francome, he described the idea of taking attention off what we are doing. Tom offered a lovely task on factors. Before using the task, he suggests that pupils should know what a factor is; he asks pupils to give some factor pairs of numbers, just to be sure the idea is clear. Even in a procedure-focused lesson (finding factors of numbers), Tom tries to make space 132

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for pupils to develop their mathematical thinking and habits of mind. He is reluctant to give much more information, unless required. In his own words: I don’t say ‘two didn’t go in, so I don’t need to try four.’ I want that to come out. I don’t want to teach every possible variation of every possible question. I want kids to use reasoning and thinking. Of course, there is some stuff you need to tell pupils and sometimes you need to tell some pupils more than others. The task begins with pupils taking a piece of paper and, by folding, dividing it into 16 equal rectangles. On each of these rectangles, pupils write a number from 1 to 16. The paper is then cut up so pupils have 16 pieces of paper, numbered from 1 to 16. The pupils are then instructed to sort the numbers into piles, based on how many factors they have. The distinction between the direct call to action, ‘find the factors of all the numbers’ and the more open question, ‘how many factors does each number have?’ is clear. It is not a case of ‘do this’; rather, pupils are invited to think and use their own strategies. Tom suggests that this is more powerful than simply telling pupils a process for listing factors of numbers. ‘Often I see people teach kids a procedure, they can do it at the moment and then two weeks later nobody even knows what it was.’ In this task, pupils will get plenty of practice, but will have to think a little harder because the level of cognitive demand hasn’t been lowered too much. 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Number of factors: 1. 1 2. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 3. 4, 9

4. 6, 8, 10, 14, 15 5. 16 6. 12

It helps to think about this task through the lens of product and process. The product is the numbers sorted into piles. The process is pupils finding the factors – but this is subordinated to the sorting. Tom suggests that: the way you get fluency is by taking the attention off what you are doing. You’ve got to be able to do it without thinking about it. If you ask kids what they are doing, they might say, ‘I’m sorting these cards 133

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by how many factors they have’. The thing I really want them to be able to do is to find factors. They are doing this, but the simple tweak of the cards means it’s not their sole focus. This, for me, helps to develop fluency. I want them to be able to think about it if they need to. This is an interesting theory on how we might develop fluency, which Tom is pursuing further in his PhD research. The task is easily extendable. Tom describes the opportunities for generalisation, saying: we’ve got some particular examples, but we can move towards the generality. As Gattegno said, “every maths lesson should be shot through with the generality”. Once pupils have created a solution, we can ask questions such as, ‘Which numbers have one factor? Which have only two factors? etc…’ We can begin to attach some meaning. We can see that numbers with exactly two factors are primes. A nice situation that arose when I tried this task with a group of teachers was that we established that numbers with three factors are square. However, it does not follow that all square numbers have three factors. This is a great example of making conjectures and having opportunities to discuss them. Through more investigation we might establish that having an odd number of factors is what determines if a number is square. Further exploration could involve questions such as considering the properties of numbers with four factors. Pupils often realise that they are a ‘prime times a prime’, but sometimes it’s a prime cubed. Seamlessly, the focus is moving towards writing numbers as a product of primes. The beauty of this task is that everyone can start, everyone is working on the same ideas. There is extension in this even for pupils who have done it before. I would argue that this is a far richer experience than finding lists of factors for numbers in an arbitrary manner from a textbook. Tom made some important points about pupils discovering things. It’s trendy at the moment to diss discovering things [but this] is nonsense. If there is an opportunity for pupils to make a step to discover things, this is powerful. The problem arises if we depend upon [discovery learning] as the only place you will encounter this. Maths is all interconnected.

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Tom emphasises that ideas can be discovered in different ways at different times and stages of learning. For example, we could have pupils measure the angles of triangles in circles in early secondary, as practice in angle measuring. Some pupils might discover some facts about circle theorems at this point, but the key focus is practising measuring. We can recognise pupils’ ideas and chat about them, but we don’t depend on their discovery here. If pupils have had that experience, this is positive as it helps us to lay the groundwork for later teaching. Tom says: Similarly the laws of indices can be built up over time where, by the time of formal teaching, pupils have internalised much of [the theory]. I want pupils to feel like they are mathematicians, but I don’t want them to be tied to and dependent on me. In some respects, allowing pupils to encounter material which is harder than currently needed, makes the easier material simpler. We can think, ‘what will they need in two years?’ and engage with that – it’s just about laying some groundwork.

Surds

Gerry McNally described a lesson on surds, which had a similar structure to the factors task described by Tom. Initially, Gerry showed his pupils this rule √ab = √a × √b and worked on the basics of that idea. Then, to begin the task, he issued 100 sticky notes to the class, each showing the square root of a number from 1 to 100 (e.g. √50). Pupils were put into groups and each group was given a random selection of the sticky notes. At this point in the lesson, Gerry made some deliberate choices around language: ‘Bear in mind, they had an idea around the simplification of square roots but at this stage I wasn’t using the term “surd”.’ Pupils were asked to classify their square roots as ‘fully resolvable’ (for example, the square root of 25 is 5), ‘partly resolvable’ (for example, the square root of 8 is 2√2) or ‘not resolvable’. Gerry drew the following chart on the board and asked the groups to place their sticky notes in the appropriate sections: Fully resolvable

Partially resolvable

Not resolvable

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That was the task. I’d given an introduction and then I stood back and watched. I just loved what I saw. I loved the amount of engagement. I loved the amount of moving around the room and discussing things. That took a whole lesson; more, to be honest. Between them they didn’t get it all completed and didn’t get it all right, but it gave so much opportunity for discussion. It highlighted, I hesitate to say, misconceptions; it highlighted cases which were wrong. This gave us an opportunity to have discussions as a class, but in the main the pupils were having those discussions themselves. For the main part of the lesson I did very little other than just observe what was taking place. I like to give tasks that give pupils the opportunity to speak about what they have done, to question things, make conjectures and justify ideas. Sometimes we may be inclined to think that all procedural tasks should be about pupils achieving a correct solution – that we should be product focused. Being able to correctly perform common processes is important, but so too is building on pupils’ own thinking and understanding. This task is about drawing out pupils’ self-generated ideas and strategies and then, through discussion, moving towards more sophisticated formal approaches.

Learner generation Watson and Mason (2005) suggest that: mathematics is learned by becoming familiar with examples that manifest and illustrate mathematical ideas and by constructing generalisations from examples. The more of this we can do for ourselves, the more we can make the territories of mathematics our own. The idea of learner generation is a useful pedagogical tool. A pupil’s passive acceptance of given examples, or given definitions, does not necessarily result in deep understanding of a concept. Sowder (1980) describes a phase in learning such that, once pupils are adept at distinguishing examples and non-examples, they need to construct their own examples before stating and using formal definitions meaningfully. There is a further discussion on learner generation as a task design principle in Chapter 9. For now, we will examine some tasks that involve pupils generating examples of their own.

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Quadratics

Pupils typically do work on quadratics which are given to them, often scaffolded with questions such as ‘Find the roots’ or ‘State the axis of symmetry’. I suggest that this level of scaffolding is not always necessary or desirable. Here is an example of a task providing little scaffolding: In each cell, sketch a quadratic which meets the criteria and write a possible equation to go with your sketch. No real roots

Equal real roots

Two real roots

y-intercept > 0

y-intercept = 0

y-intercept < 0

Here, pupils are presented with some constraints within which to operate. The task requires pupils to interact with the definitions of the terms ‘roots’ and ‘y-intercept’ in a meaningful way, and aims to help pupils view these terms as something with which they are comfortable , rather than simply as received definitions. Drawing sketches gives pupils the chance to externalise their understanding of the terminology and underlying concepts. The additional challenge of having to create potential equations for these graphs makes the task more complex. I have refrained from asking for the values of the roots or the y-intercept, since this would demand further thinking from pupils; the task could be used for that purpose, but I typically use it fairly early in pupils’ learning about quadratics. At this stage, I want to assess the extent to which they have grasped the ideas of ‘roots’ and the ‘y-intercept’. Also emerging from this task, but not directly stated, will be the generation of some parabolas with either maximum or minimum turning points. 137

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The first cell in the middle row – ‘no roots, y-intercept = 0’ – provokes a little moment of tension for pupils as there is no graph which fits these criteria! A task with similar goals, taking into account learner generation, is shown below: Sketching lines from given conditions Sketch a line which satisfies each set of conditions. m > 0, c < 0 m > 0, c > 0

m < 0, c > 0

m < 0, c < 0

m < 0, c = 0

m = 0, c > 0

Logarithms

Logarithms can be reduced to some cold, austere definition such as: logb(x) = y exactly if by = x and x > 0 and b > 0 and b ≠ 1 While this captures the definition formally, in my experience it is of little value to pupils who are learning about the idea. Pupils need some interaction 138

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with logarithms through examples. Let me suggest an alternative approach, using this task: log416 = log2

= log 9 = log

log416 = log10

= log 81 = log

log164 = log100

= log 2 = log

log2 1 = log3 2

= log

1 = log 5

log48 = log16

= log 27 = log

The task involves a mix of interpreting log expressions and then generating other expressions with equivalent values. In each row, pupils first have to interpret the given expression. The second and third expressions in each row require pupils to consider the relationship between the base, the argument and the value of the logarithm, and use this to identify values that satisfy the constraint. In the final expression in each row, there is more freedom. The expression generated has to be equivalent to others on the line, so once pupils decide on a base, there is only one valid argument. The mathematics itself imposes a constraint upon the values for the argument. This task is increasingly challenging on each subsequent line, with pupils later having to consider fractional and negative powers (although these powers never explicitly appear on the page – they are hidden in the thinking involved in the task). It is important to give pupils opportunities to verbalise their understanding of the invariant relationships. For instance, on the penultimate line, each expression is equal to −1, but a pupil may successfully complete the task without realising that, in general, loga 12 = –1. The task can be developed further with simple prompts such as, ‘write four log expressions with a value of x’. These sorts of activity take advantage of the generation effect to strengthen pupils’ learning.

Algebraic fractions

No matter how much ‘telling’ or ‘drilling’ happens, pupils still make errors. I suggest that pupils require various experiences before they begin to appreciate an idea, learn to recognise it in other situations and then produce mathematical work which takes the idea into account. That is to say, the idea needs to be encountered, understood and then assimilated to their wider understanding of mathematics. The simplification of algebraic fractions is a topic where pupils often appear to have developed some degree of procedural fluency at the time of completing a routine drill worksheet. However, when an algebraic fraction appears as part of some other task it is common for pupils to make technical errors with the simplification. 139

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While pupils may seem to have grasped the key idea – that a term must be a common factor to numerator and denominator for simplification to be permissible – this is not always the case. It may simply be that, on a given worksheet, they have been imitating the process demonstrated by the teacher. True fluency comes when pupils are able to recognise a phenomenon and then employ strategies they have worked on previously. Consider the task shown below. Here are some algebraic terms: 4x 2 y 8x2

x3 9

Selecting from the terms above, create expressions of the form below that can be simplified. Do the correct simplification.

+

Selecting from the terms above, create expressions of the form below that cannot be simplified.

+

Using any terms, create four expressions of the form below that can be simplified. Do the correct simplification. Using any terms, create expressions of the form below that cannot be simplified. Try to make them so that somebody might think they can be simplified.

+ +

I use this task sometime after the initial teaching – usually after some homework exercise in which several pupils have tried to simplify algebraic fractions where simplification was not possible. By the time this task arises, pupils can probably simplify algebraic fractions. It is the recognition of when this is allowed that we need to work on, and more drill practice of this is unlikely to reap significant rewards. In the task above, there is some element of doing procedures, but the main focus is on examining the conditions where the simplification is possible. This encountering of examples and non-examples can help to develop appropriate awareness. The whole task uses learner generation. The first couple of questions are constrained by pupils selecting from the terms given, while the later tasks involve pupils generating their own terms. The task can be extended so there are two terms in the denominator and in the numerator. It can then be extended further still to include quadratics and polynomials in the numerator and denominator if appropriate.

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Circle theorems

Here is a task I have used many times with my pupils, in this form and with several variations.

1. In words, describe each of the circle facts shown above as accurately as you can. 2. For each circle fact, create an easy question for your partner to solve. 3. Create three questions, each of which uses two of the circle facts, for your partner to solve.

Usually, I use this task to help pupils revise their knowledge of circle theorems sometime after having initially worked on them. Pupils are invited to generate their own explanations of the circle theorems shown. This is more demanding, but likely more useful, than regurgitating a teacher-given definition, since it requires them to think carefully about the mathematics and how to articulate its meaning; pupils must focus on the features present in each theorem to arrive at accurate articulations. To check they have appreciated this, they are then asked to create simple problems for a partner to solve. There is a built in checking process, which becomes apparent through their collaboration with a peer. Next, pupils are asked to create questions that draw on two of the theorems. This is intended to get them into the mindset of the task designer. Pupils can consider ways to make the problems more challenging. They have to think carefully about the range of permissible changes and ensure the theorems still hold in the problems they generate. It is important that pupils work through their problems before swapping with a partner and working through each other’s questions. Again, checking is built in through the discussion.

Interleaving effect One of the most frequently misinterpreted ideas from research on memory is that of interleaving. I know that I have previously fallen into the trap of confusing interleaving and ‘spacing’, for example. This is easily done as the ideas are closely related. Let’s take a moment here to ensure a common understanding of interleaving.

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Interleaving

What it is not: • Spacing practice over time – this is called spaced practice. Although interleaving and spacing are different interventions, the two are inextricably linked because interleaving inherently introduces spacing • A curriculum design tool for chopping up lots of topics. That would also be an application of spaced practice. • An excuse to shoehorn fractions, decimals, angles, negatives or whatever else into every single exercise. Again, this is an application of spaced practice. What it is: • A consideration at the time of initial study, where related ideas are taught in close proximity. • A desirable difficulty (as described by Robert Bjork) – that is to say, a feature introduced at the time of learning that deliberately disrupts the learner and creates an apparent tension, cognitive conflict or obstacle. This acts to refocus or reset the learner’s attention (Bjork, 1994). Spacing involves revision throughout the course, whereas interleaving involves switching between ideas while you study. Interleaving might work because it helps pupils to distinguish between concepts and learn when to apply which strategy (Rohrer, 2012). However, interleaving completely unrelated ideas results in no additional gains in learning (Hausman and Kornell, 2014). Much more research is needed to interpret how we can use interleaving in the mathematics classroom. However, Rohrer et al. have taken steps in completing some interesting work with this focus, testing the effects of interleaving in a mathematics-specific domain and beyond laboratory conditions (Rohrer, Dedrick and Stershic, 2015). The task below is designed for pupils learning the basics of the chain rule for differentiation, integration of linear expressions to a power, and integration and differentiation of trig expressions. I tend to work through a few example– problem pairs involving differentiation and integration, then follow up with the set of questions below. Usually, I would have taught all of these related ideas separately; however, the premise of interleaving is to create ‘interference’ of some sort. Making the learning harder in the initial stages can lead to long-term gains in terms of both memory and the ability to retrieve those memories. However, it can be uncomfortable for teacher and pupil alike. For pupils, there is the struggle involved in switching between two different, but related ideas. For the teacher, the lesson may ‘seem’ to go less well than a lesson with a narrower focus. However, this sort of thinking is a result of confusing instantaneous performance with learning. 142

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It is important to remember that they are not the same thing. How pupils react to these desirable difficulties can be a result of the culture built up in the classroom. If time is taken to explain the principles behind the desirable difficulties, in an age/stage appropriate way, this can help pupils make better sense of it too and embrace the challenge rather than feel demoralised or frustrated by it. Differentiate (3x + 2)2

Integrate (2 – 5x)3

2(1 – 4x)3 5 3(2x – 4)2 7 √4x + 5 √3 + 2x

3

√1 + 5x

1 3 √1 – 5x

(2x2 + 1)4 cos(2x – π)

(

sin 3x +

(

)

π 2

)

π 2sin – 4x 3

3cos(π – 2x) cos2(x)

Rather than blocking these three or four skills over separate lessons and then bringing them together at the end, the idea here is to work on all of them together, from the start, and continue to do this across a sequence of lessons. Robert Bjork often tells a story that sums up this approach beautifully. Describing his attempts to learn how to play tennis, he tells us about the normal coaching practice of weeks and weeks of learning how to serve (and nothing else), followed by weeks of backhand, weeks of lobbing, weeks of smashing and so on. The aspiring tennis player builds up confidence and deftness in each individual skill or technique, before finally bringing them together in a game. The experience for the learner is one of assured mastery of each separate pointer the coach gives them – they practice and practice until the serve is natural and unthinking, and so feel like they are making excellent progress. Bjork then describes an interleaved approach. This time, the poor sap of a beginner tennis ace arrives at their very first lesson and is asked to try all techniques immediately – they serve, play backhand, smash at the net, try to master footing, learn how to defend a serve and do 143

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everything else involved in a full game. They are left defeated and dumbfounded. Every subsequent lesson is the same – a mix of all techniques in every session. As teachers, we are often tempted by the first, smooth path to mastery. But the interesting and remarkable outcome is that the second player more readily becomes the tennis ace, not the first. By interleaving the related techniques, the learner is forced to focus their attention on the differences between the moves rather than on the sameness within each move. Our mathematics task above achieves the same. This task is best accomplished with the use of mini whiteboards to ensure ample feedback for pupils. The task is clearly about technical details rather than conceptual understanding. However, such details are important: experience has shown me that many pupils struggle with these more sophisticated technical details in calculus. The task is rooted in the idea of doing and undoing. Once the grid is completed, pupils can go back and work in the opposite direction, integrating and differentiating their answers to get back to the initial questions. When I trialled this task with one pupil, he jotted down, ‘power to front → one off power → multiply by derivative of bracket’. It was interesting to see him retrace his steps backwards along this journey when looking at integration. The doing and undoing allowed him to work independently, with self-directed feedback, as he worked through the task for the second time in reverse. Of course, with integration, it is not the derivative of inside the brackets but the coefficient of x in the linear expression. The task deliberately includes two examples that can be differentiated but not integrated at this point in time. I want pupils to see that there is a need for more sophisticated techniques such as integration by substitution: I don’t want them to overgeneralise the idea. This would, by necessity, be only one task in a sequence. The cognitive demand comes from how I choose to use the task, not the nature of the task itself. The same task could be used with much lower cognitive demand as a review exercise at the end of teaching these ideas. There are many other areas of the curriculum where related ideas could potentially be interleaved: area and perimeter, volumes of shapes, sine and cosine rules etc. One thing I frequently think about, in terms of research, is that we have to test ideas in our own experience. Much of the work from cognitive science is propositional when applied to mathematics teaching, which is to say it has been proposed or theorised by an academic but has not yet been shown to work in live classroom settings. We can learn from the ideas, of course, but we have no rigorously proven ways of making them work. The task above is a result of my own experiments with interleaving. When using such approaches to create ‘desirable difficulties’, I am aware of a tension: the balance between ensuring pupils have high levels of success and making the learning hard enough to secure their long-term performance. 144

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7 Conceptual tasks That pupils develop conceptual understanding is desirable for many reasons. Conceptual understanding has significant impacts on retention of procedural fluency. As facts and methods learned with understanding are connected, they are easier to remember and use, and they can be reconstructed when forgotten. (Hiebert and Carpenter, 1992) Conceptual understanding includes, but is not limited to: • • • •

understanding connections between ideas being able to discriminate between ideas appreciating underlying principles and relationships between attributes representational fluency – the ability to comprehend and translate between representations • appreciating and making mathematical arguments related to the idea • understanding ‘why’ and ‘why not’. Activity that might help to develop this includes: • • • • • • • • •

sorting and matching classifying using multiple representations – interpretation and generation exploring principles and deliberate interaction with attributes scaffolded proof guided discovery discussing mathematical statements combining ideas interpreting and creating stories.

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As in the previous chapter, the tasks described below address more than one strand of mathematical understanding. Arguments could have been made for their inclusion in other chapters. However, conceptual understanding is the primary focus of these tasks.

Sorting and matching On many occasions over the years, the topic of composite functions has lulled me into a false sense of security. At the time of initial teaching, it seems that pupils have grasped the ideas and can perform the substitutions correctly. At this point, I usually have a sense of ‘job well done’. Nevertheless – and almost inevitably – in a homework exercise or class quiz a week later, a notable number of pupils will make significant errors on these questions. The most common error involves substituting functions the wrong way around (e.g. f into h instead of h into f). Most of the time, pupils are able to produce accurate composite functions based on these incorrect starting points. The issue is then having some way of re-focusing on the initial composition itself rather than on the subsequent algebra. It would be inefficient to have pupils do more composite function questions in their entirety; they clearly don’t need to practise the whole process since the algebraic manipulation after the substitution is usually fine. Instead, they need to re-attend to the idea of substitution. I say re-attend, as we will have discussed the concept at the time of initial teaching. The problem is that it is very difficult to tell somebody conceptual understanding. Previously I have found myself re-telling or re-exemplifying the ideas to pupils and giving them more practice, but this is problematic for two reasons. First, the whole process takes valuable time. Second, it takes agency away from pupils – they no longer ‘own’ the learning, and the responsibility for pupils’ understanding moves back to the teacher. Pupils need to interact with the mathematics themselves and make sense of it. Can we achieve this with a different type of task? Here is an example:

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7 Conceptual tasks

f(x) = 3x + 2 g(x) = x2 + 1 h(x) = 5x − 4

f(g(x))

5(3x + 2) − 4

g(f(x))

(3x + 2)2 + 1

h(f(x))

3(5x − 4) + 2

f(h(x))

(x2 + 1)2 + 1

f(f(x))

3(3x + 2) + 2

g(g(x))

3(x2 + 1) + 2

x

f(x) h(x)

x

g(x) g(x)

x

g(x) f(x)

x

f(x) f(x)

x

h(x) f(x)

x

f(x) g(x)

Substitute f(x) into f(x)

Substitute g(x) into f(x)

Substitute f(x) into g(x)

Substitute h(x) into f(x)

Substitute g(x) into g(x)

Substitute f(x) into h(x)

This task is designed to be used in a relatively short period of time to help pupils focus on the key idea. The inclusion of the different representations is intended to give pupils something on which to focus their thinking as they do the initial substitutions. Rather than making arbitrary decisions based on a sketchy understanding derived from procedural imitation, pupils’ work will be based on conceptual thinking. There is, of course, no guarantee that the task will work, but I have often found it to be an adequate intervention task – I would be interested to hear about the experiences you have in your own classroom should you choose to try this task with your pupils. 147

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Classifying Symmetry

Classification tasks are powerful. Here is an extract from a classic example from the Standards Unit (Swan, 2005):

This task involves pupils discriminating between line and rotational symmetry. Pupils encounter line symmetry early in primary school, yet it is not uncommon to see them working specifically on this idea, with little increased demand, at secondary level. This task increases the demand as pupils have to work with two ideas simultaneously. As such, it is a powerful assessment task: if pupils can handle this, one has to ask if there is much point in spending time on the basics of either idea. There are also some generalisations that arise here, such as the fact that it is possible to have line symmetry but no rotational symmetry and vice versa. These generalisations can serve as the basis of a class discussion. A nice follow-up task is to ask pupils to create a shape of their own that belongs in each category.

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7 Conceptual tasks

Rational functions

Thomson shared the following task with me. The intention is for pupils to begin to perceive the information present in the algebraic representation of each rational function. Match each rational function to its correct position in the table.

No vertical asymptote

One vertical asymptote

Two vertical asymptotes

Horizontal asymptote (x-axis)

Horizontal asymptote (y = k)

Oblique/ nonvertical asymptote

For each type of asymptote, pupils have to be aware of certain conditions. This task keeps the focus on those conditions, which is an efficient use of time. Pupils may be told or shown the conditions when various types of asymptote are present, but they will only really begin to internalise this information after repeated engagement with function graphing tasks. Rather than embarking on such extended tasks immediately, this task allows pupils to practise examining the features of the algebraic representations. By narrowing the focus, pupils have a chance to attend to these important details. Having a secure understanding of this content will help pupils when they do move on to extended curve sketch tasks. 149

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I asked Andy how we might use this task with pupils. He said: I’d ask them to focus on the classification process and not to simply take each function on its own merits. I’d also ask them – for each function – to provide two reasons why they’ve assigned it to a particular location. I’d be looking for high quality explanations, for example, ‘this function has no vertical asymptote because the denominator cannot be equal to zero. I know this because …’ As a follow-up ‘testing’ task, I’d challenge them to find and justify their own example for each of the nine slots in the table.

Roots classification

Tom Carson created this classification task on evaluation of roots. This involves several layers of complexity, and includes some excellent opportunities for reflection. First, pupils have to determine the magnitude of the numbers. In some cases, this might mean evaluation, but generally, inspection and ‘reasoning it out’ should be sufficient. Pupils may want to convert the fractional powers to root form to interpret them. Tom’s use of ‘Rational’ and ‘Irrational’ as column headings is a good way of encouraging pupils to think meaningfully about the definitions. Rather than giving pupils definitions to remember, this task allows them to interact with the concept of rationality; it gives them some experience on which to hang the meaning. Pupils have to use the numbers given and repeatedly refine their understanding of rational numbers by reflecting on the examples. √ – (7)2 is a curveball. Pupils at this stage are unlikely to have encountered imaginary numbers, so this question gives them a look at what lies ahead in their mathematical journey. Rational

Irrational

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